Go in search of itself
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Habitual rhythm of familiar surroundings, endless running in circles "home-road-work, food-sleep" ... All this is well and goes on, but where is the I? What I want something? It is my life comes down to it? A few years ago, the German philosopher Richard Precht (Richard David Precht) published a book - a philosophical journey, which became an international bestseller. It's called "Who I am and how much I have, if I do there?" 1. Phrase in the headline, Precht said one friend while drunk. However, we have to admit: this phrase is the best conveys a strange feeling, seize today by many of us. "Everything seems good, but something is wrong." "I have everything, but I understand that is unhappy, and do not understand why" - therapists all over the world listen to such complaints every day. What's happening?
How much do I have?
Transformation, rebirth, a plurality of "I" and a complete rejection of it - not a novelty for the Eastern world. European philosophers for thousands of years was to position remains unchanged, and the integrity of a certain base, the central essence of man. And psychology "for most of the twentieth century tried to find the essence of the person in a stable and unchanging structures, facilities, types and character traits - indicates Dmitry Leontyev psychologist. - Now, however, come to the fore dynamic structures that provide a combination of stability and variability of the individual. The key is the ability not only to adapt to the unchanging environment, how to adequately respond to its variability, the complexity and uncertainty. " The idea of variability is reflected in the multiplicity of therapeutic methods that have grown in the 1970-1980's. This inner dialogue, and psycho, during which the patient tries to hear their "sub-personalities". In short, it attempts to "introduce" a plurality of pieces, components seem to our "I".
Solid, friendly people, moving through life like on rails, once and for all laid by family, cultural and social environment - the man was in the past. "The twentieth century opened up the possibility of us free to go beyond the class, class, family, and even gender restrictions - said the psychologist Francois de Sengli (François de Singly). - And he freed all of us a lot of time. " That we can spend, comprehending what we still are - and who would like to be.
In the psychologists blame?
Part of the responsibility for our painful search for himself lies and psychology. To see this, just go to any bookstore. A good third of the shelves almost certainly take the book encourages readers to get out of their comfort zone, to set foot on the path of development, to seek and find himself. However, Dmitry Leontiev notes that the book devoted to the search and the knowledge of ourselves, existed long before the fashion of "sebyaiskatelstvo": "Just before they were addressed to a small group of enlightened people. But about the beginning of the twentieth century due to the rise of literacy emerged simplification effect adaptation thoughts, addressed to the minority, to the requirements of mass culture. "
Popular culture and the truth is very contributed to the interest in finding himself. At least the fact that it is the opinion of Dmitry Leontiev, in contrast to the traditional culture does not help to reveal meanings and arbitrarily assigns them. "This season, wear red. Buy a car of such a mark. Be efficient. And why? Why not green, why this brand, why necessarily efficient? There are no answers, but they are not required. And with the development of the consumer society of imposed meanings are more and more ", - says Dmitry Leontyev. It must be admitted that "zero-fed" did a lot for the rapid growth of these assigned meanings in Russian. So - give a powerful impetus to the search for themselves and their meanings. Perhaps our true destiny is to live on the ruble, and fly to the sell-off in Milan? Or, conversely, to teach children in a rural school, to volunteer or to meditate in an ashram? What if there really is no "other way around"?
The quest for the meaning of
Keyword already sounded, and the word "meaning." It is the search for meaning in the first place is to find yourself, Dmitry Leontiev sure: "Finding yourself - a search that is significant for us in this world. This applies to other people, to work and other pursuits, to the place of residence or stay. We can find ourselves only what is important to us. And we can not - that we do not care, it makes no sense for us. And all the supposedly stable characteristics of our character and mental warehouse, which we used to call the word "I", may change with a change in meaning. "
Until about 2000 the concept of the meaning of rejected academic psychology. Now, however, it created a real boom in publications. During the last five years came over fundamental books, dedicated to the problems of meaning than in the previous thirty.
"Know yourself, no one will remain the same. Doing the work of self-knowledge, we will inevitably be changed - and we must do it again. And so on to infinity "
"With a brilliant metaphor of Antoine de Saint-Exupery, we can say that the meaning - it is a divine unit that connects things among themselves," - says Dmitry Leontyev. It is particularly important finding meaning in times of economic and moral crises like the one we are experiencing today. However, crises are part and facilitate the task, taking into oblivion husk assigned meanings, yesterday seemed absolute.
And the process, and the result of
Modern psychology is increasingly looking to the concept, which considers the human being as a constantly changing and evolving identity. This is not a "hidden, deep" I ", but" I ", which is constantly creating itself, based on all the new experiences and coming to understand it," - says Francois de Sengli. This statement shows he experience of family psychology. Even fifteen years ago in a divorce husband and wife explained its decision as follows: "I thought he was actually quite different," or "We are not right for each other." Now, more often we hear: "I have changed" or "We interfere with each other to grow." By the way, for this reason divorced couples today are much more often than before, after breaking support is quite calm and even friendly relations. Sociologists call this phenomenon "the logic of the road", contrasting it with "frozen picture".
Philosopher and psychoanalyst Godard Elsa (Elsa Godart) compares a person by the root: "It also covered a lot of layers and also has no core." Dmitry Leontyev this is not quite agree: "The bulb - too static image and identity - something which is in constant motion. After all meanings, that define our search for yourself, too, are constantly changing. " Rather, we can say that the personality - it is not only the result of our search for ourselves, but to the same extent, and the search process itself. Are there people who find themselves under the power once and for all? Perhaps there is, but it is unlikely they should envy. "People with very stable" I "- it is just those who are a little concerned about the search for self and self-knowledge. The same, who cares about his own "I", who thinks a lot about it and looking for himself, is destined to change, - concludes Dmitry Leontyev. - It is a paradox that can be formulated in the spirit of the ancient Greek paradoxes. Know yourself, no one will remain as he was. Consequently, the work done by the knowledge of ourselves, we will inevitably change - and will have to do the work again. And so on to infinity. " 1 R. Precht "Wer bin ich - und wenn ja, wie viele? Eine philosophische Reise "(Goldmann Verlag, 2007).