"We need that surpasses us"

Is it possible to realize themselves alone? "It is an illusion" - meets the psychoanalyst Alain Vanier. To give meaning to his life, needed beliefs, beliefs and ideals.

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Why "find themselves" need today has become so urgent?

Alain Vanier:

This, in my opinion, is nothing but one of the symptoms of the modern troubles. Many years ago Sigmund Freud explained in his book "Civilization and its Discontents" 1 that people experience trouble because of the victims, which requires our civilization from them. So, if today we feel that we need to find ourselves, this is due to the fact that we feel lost, to their own devices. Two centuries ago, no one would have to ask such questions. People are not looking for themselves, they did not need it: the location of each man was given to him at birth and for all. Origin, such as social and family, establish some responsibilities, constraints, more or less opportunities defined by kinship. European aristocratic family needed a male heir to the estate, and give him a name. The second son was expected that he would devote himself to the service of religion, and so on. In the past century, you are not required to "find himself" as a professional: your existence is completely determined by the thing that you were doing. You came to work at age 18 and stayed there all my life, gradually climbing up the career stairs, and then quietly retire. The traditional way of bringing comfort, but kept in the infantile position - even Freud speaks of "serfdom". Ready whether modern man to do without this support? Now people do not have landmarks that gave definite and assigned to them in society.

"All the phenomena of the symbolic order - God, religion, tradition, a certain world order - have been distorted as a result of technological and scientific progress'

On what grounds we feel its lostness?

A. .:

We feel it when are losing something that has played the role of an anchor for us: the spouse (y), for example, or work - in fact, we live in a society in which the work is the source of our identity. Or when we lose a goal in life: For many years we have sought to achieve something that takes many forms - it can be a woman or a man, position in society, subject and so on - and then, when we get the feel emptiness . One of my patients told me to get what she wanted to be like: "Now I have the impression that I was on the road leading straight to death." In addition, in our time is so strong self imperative that we always feel his inconsistency that need to realize themselves, which imposes on us the era. If we think that the achievement of our personal truth is only possible through us, then we will always be something not to be missed. This is the same illusion as the insane desire for independence, which we offer as a panacea. Jacques Lacan said in 1970 about the modern "delusions of autonomy." It is self-deception, a trap.

So, to find themselves, we need a mediator?

A. .:

The modern world has the peculiarity that all the phenomena of the symbolic order - God, religion, tradition, a certain world order - were misinterpreted in the technological and scientific progress. I remember that in the Soviet Union to fight the influence of the church after the first manned flight into space introduced the slogan: "Gagarin flew to heaven, but God did not see." Yet we need transcendence, role models, ideals and a set of values, mentors - living now or existed in the past. Psychoanalysis allows partly to get rid of this need, but otherwise it's fundamental, primal, innate need, first of all because we are physically and mentally, we came out of the other person. And then another man has allowed us to get out of the merger with the mother's body: the father figure symbolically allowed us to gain independence, at the same time becoming a reference point for us. Growing up, we build ourselves through this figure, more or less overwhelming, we compare ourselves with it. It was from her we get a sense of our existence, hope, cure of gravity of life, which we feel - life's not so easy. Hence the success of religion in the broad sense of the word. This "other", big or small, is embodied in various forms at different points in our lives, the people we meet, the circle of friends, a club of football fans, participation in social, political and religious life. In Western society we are seeing a return to traditional religions, and passion for other more "exotic". Do they need us to live?

A. .:

In 1974, Jacques Lacan announced the return of religious values ​​- a prophecy that at the time sounded strange. But he was right. The disappearance of a religious order in which God was something taken for granted, leaving people restless. The progress of science and technology put into question our beliefs, destroyed the idea of ​​beaming the afterlife, according to which, suffering on earth, we find in the garden something from which we had to give up in this life. The world, which have enriched the progress we then lost in the mirage of the market, because capitalism has imposed us another lie, promising that it lost happiness, we can find some here. Philosopher Hannah Arendt pointed out that the logic of consumption is subject to the principle of the destruction of a 2. Fashion, novelty destroying the value of the object before it wears out: "In fact, this is not what I wanted (a)!" Thus, we again move from one object to another. Did we not notice that by changing the smart phone or tablet, we do not feel satisfaction? In addition, as a result of the destruction of tradition no longer exists social ethics of desire, morality, "that it is accepted to do," "what to do is not accepted" no longer has any weight for people. Today, a man torn between his wife, family and lover, no longer knows what he has to choose. We have less than benchmarks in the field of ideals, beliefs or principles. Today, it seems that everything is permitted, everything is possible and all in vain. Therefore we are looking for and we can find the kind of access to the religions that allow escape from malignant materialism, to cope with the feeling of being lost. Increasingly, the loss of belief provokes fundamentalism, desperate to silence in others the doubts that torment us. This choice - a vicious response to a deep need to believe.

"Everyone can think of yourself your own path or paths: to start a family, cultivate the garden, go to church, to write a diary, to do politics ... And it is absolutely unpredictable"

You are talking about the need for an ideal?

A. .:

Yes, we can not do without ideals. They organize our society. But at the same time, it seems to me, modern man suffers from the tyranny of an ideal, the ideal of conformity. Do not go beyond the norm - that modern ideal! We are bombarded with numbers, indicating the average monthly frequency of sexual intercourse in pairs, the frequency of divorce in the big cities and so on, and we compare these figures myself, "I should be so and so, to weigh so much, to behave as a ... "Television broadcasts a variety of mundane, pragmatic models. Even sexuality became a vowel, put up for public review: code of conduct, mental standards tell us about the need to experience vaginal orgasm, to have this or that object of desire ...

Love partners can also become the object of consumption. I do not think that we can find ourselves, but I think that we can find solutions that will help us to "fit" in their lives. Anyone can come up with a path or paths: to start a family, cultivate the garden, go to church, to write a diary, to do politics ... And it is absolutely unpredictable. This is - creativity of every person who is endowed with its own history, its own traumas and can reinvent a new one with your own resources. 1 Freud "Civilization and its Discontents" (Folio 2013).

2 Hannah Arendt "Vita activa, or about the activities of life" (Aletheia, 2000).