The main types of psychotherapy

The main types of psychotherapy


Founder: Sigmund Freud, Austria (1856-1939)

What is it? The system of methods by which you can dive into the unconscious, to study it, to help the person understand the cause of internal conflicts arising from childhood experiences, and thus save him from a neurotic problems.

The How does it work? The main thing in the psychotherapeutic process - the transformation of the unconscious conscious of using the methods of free association, dream interpretation, analysis of erroneous actions ... During the session, the patient lies on a couch, he says whatever comes to mind, even something that seems insignificant, absurd, oppressive, improper. Analyst (sitting behind the couch, the patient does not see it), interpreting the hidden meaning of the words, deeds, dreams and fantasies, tries to unravel the free association in search of the main problems. It is a long and strictly regulated form of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis takes place 3-5 times a week for 3-6 years.

This Freud "Psychopathology of Everyday Life"; "Introduction to Psychoanalysis" (St. Petersburg, 2005, 2004); "Anthology of Contemporary Psychoanalysis." Ed. A. and A. Rossokhin Zhibo (Peter, 2005).

Analytical Psychology

Founder: Carl Jung, Switzerland (1875-1961)

What is it? A holistic approach to psychotherapy and self-knowledge on the basis of the study of unconscious complexes and archetypes. Analysis releases the vital energy of man from the power of systems, directs it to overcome psychological problems and personal development.

How does it work? The analyst discusses his experiences with patients in the language of images, symbols and metaphors. Use methods of active imagination, free association and drawing, sand analytical psychotherapy. Meetings are held 1-3 times a week for 1-3 years. This Jung "Memories, Dreams, Reflections" (Air Land, 1994); "The Cambridge Guide to analytical psychology" (Dobrosvet, 2000).


Founder: Jacob Moreno, Romania (1889-1974)

What is it? The study of life and conflicts at work, with the help of acting techniques. The purpose of psychodrama - to teach a person to solve personal problems, losing their fantasies, conflicts and fears.

How does it work? In a safe therapeutic environment with the help of the therapist and the other band members played significant situations of human life. Role-playing game lets you feel the emotions, resist the deep conflicts, perform actions, which are impossible in real life. Historically, the psychodrama - the first form of group psychotherapy. Duration - from one session to 2-3 years of weekly meetings. The optimal duration of one meeting - 2, 5 hours.

This "Psychodrama: Inspiration and Technique". Ed. P. Holmes and M. Karp (Class of 2000); P. Kellermann "Psychodrama closeup. Analysis therapeutic mechanisms "(Grade 1998).

The main types of psychotherapy

Gestalt therapy

Founder: Fritz Perls, Germany (1893-1970)

What is it? Human Research as an integral system, its physical, emotional, social and spiritual manifestations. Gestalt therapy helps to gain a holistic view of themselves (Gestalt) and begin to live not in the world of the past and fantasies, and "here and now".

How does it work? With the support of a therapist working with a client that is experiencing and feeling right now. Doing the exercises, he lives his inner conflicts, analyzes the emotions and physical sensations, learn to recognize the "body language" tone of his voice, and even the movement of hands and eyes ... As a result, it achieves awareness of its own "I", is learning to be responsible for their feelings and actions. The technique combines elements of psychoanalytic (translation into consciousness of unconscious feelings) and a humanistic approach (emphasis on "harmony with itself"). Duration of therapy - for at least 6 months of weekly meetings. This F. Perls' Gestalt Therapy Practice, "" Ego, Hunger and Aggression "(IOI 1993, Sense, 2005); S. Ginger "Gestalt: the art of contact" (Per Se, 2002).

The existential analysis of

The founders: Ludwig Binswanger, Switzerland (1881-1966), Viktor Frankl, Austria (1905-1997), the Alfred Langley, Austria (1951 p.)

What is it? Psychotherapeutic direction, which is based on the idea of ​​the philosophy of existentialism. Its original concept - the "existence" or "true," the good life. A life in which a person copes with difficulties implementing its own installation, which lives freely and responsibly, which sees sense.

How does it work? The existential therapist uses simple technology. His work - an open dialogue with the client. communication style, depth discussion of issues and questions leave a person feeling that he understood - not only professionally but also humanly. During therapy, the client learns to ask itself questions of meaning, pay attention to the fact that the agreement gives rise to the feeling of your own life, no matter how difficult it may be. Duration of treatment - from 3-6 to several years of consultations.

This A. Langley "Life full of meaning" (Genesis, 2003); Frankl, "Man's Search for Meaning" (Progress, 1990); Yalom I. "Existential psychotherapy" (Class of 1999).

Neurolinguistic programming (NLP)

The founders: Richard Bandler USA (1940 p.), John Grinder United States (1949 p.)

What is it? NLP - machinery communication, aimed at changing the habits of cooperation, gaining confidence in life, optimizing creativity. How does it work? NLP technique does not work with the content and the process. During group or individual learning strategies customer behavior analyze their own experience and stepwise models effective communication. Sport - from a few weeks to 2 years.

This R. Bandler, Grinder D. "Frogs - a prince. Introductory course NLP training "(Flint, 2000).

The main types of psychotherapy

Family therapy

The founders: Mara Selwyn Palazzolo, Italy (1916-1999), Murray Bowen, United States (1913-1990), Virginia Satir, the United States (1916-1988), Carl Whitaker, United States (1912-1995)

What is it? Modern family therapy includes several approaches; common to all - do not work with one person, but with the family as a whole. The actions and intentions of the people in this therapy are not perceived as individual manifestations, but as a consequence of the laws and regulations of the family system.

How does it work? Use different methods, among them the genogram - drawn from customer word "scheme" of the family, reflecting births, deaths, marriages and divorces of its members. In the process of drawing up often and found the source of problems, forcing family members to behave in a certain way. Usually the meeting family therapist and client are held once a week and last for several months.

This K. Whitaker "Midnight Reflections family therapist" (Class of 1998); M. Bowen, "The theory of family systems" (Cogito-Center, 2005); A. Varga "Systemic family therapy" (Speech, 2001).

The client-centered therapy

Founder: Carl Rogers, United States (1902-1987)

What is it? The most popular in the world (after psychoanalysis) psychotherapeutic work system. It is based on the belief that the person seeking help, he is able to determine the cause and find a way to solve their problems - need only support a therapist. Method name emphasizes that it is the customer makes the guide changes. How does it work? The therapy takes place in the form of a dialogue that is established between the client and the therapist. The most important thing in it - the emotional atmosphere of trust, respect and understanding unranked. It allows the client to feel that he is seen for what it is; he can talk about anything without fear of censure or disapproval. Given that the man himself determines whether it has reached the desired goals, therapy at any time to stop or take a decision on its continuation. Positive changes occur already in the first sessions, the deeper possible after 10-15 meetings.

This Rogers' person-centered therapy. Theory, practice and application of modern "(Eksmo-Press, 2002).

The main types of psychotherapy

Erickson hypnosis

Founder: Erickson, USA (1901-1980)

What is it? Erickson hypnosis uses a person's ability to involuntary hypnotic trance - a state of mind in which it is the most open and ready for positive changes. This "soft", non-prescriptive hypnosis, in which a person is awake.

How does it work? The therapist does not resort to direct inspiration, and uses metaphors, parables, fairy tales - and the unconscious itself finds its way to the correct solution. The effect can occur after the first session, and sometimes it takes several months of work.

This M. Erickson, E. Rossi "Man of February" (Class of 1995).

Transactional analysis of

Founder: Eric Berne, Canada (1910-1970)

What is it? Psychotherapeutic direction, which is based on the theory of the three states of our "I" - children, adults, and parents, as well as the influence of unconscious person chooses the state to interact with other people. The goal of therapy is that the client understood the principles of his behavior and took him under his adult control. How does it work? The therapist helps determine which Person of our "I" is involved in a particular situation, and to understand what is generally an unconscious script of our lives. As a result of this work, patterns of behavior change. The therapy uses elements of psychodrama, role-playing, simulation family. This type of treatment is effective in group work; its duration depends on the customer.

This E. Berne "Games People Play ...", "What do you say after you say" hello "(FAIR 2001, Ripol Klassik, 2004).

Body-oriented therapy is

Founders: Wilhelm Reich, Austria (1897-1957); Alexander Lowen, the United States (p. 1910)

What is it? The method is based on the use of special exercise in combination with psychological analysis of bodily sensations and emotional human reactions. It is based on the position of W. Reich that all the traumatic experiences of the past remain in the body in the form of "muscle clips".

How does it work? patients problems are considered in connection with the peculiarities of their bodies functioning. human task performing the exercises - to understand their bodies, to realize physical manifestations of their needs, desires, feelings. Cognition and body work are changing attitudes, give a feeling of fullness of life. Classes are held individually or in a group.

This A. Loewen "Physical dynamics of character structure" (PANI, 1996); M. Sandomirskiy "Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy bodily" (Class of 2005).