To buy or not to buy, how do we get into the marketing trap
"Most of the ideas about the goods of a particular brand imprinted in our unconscious and created primarily advertising - says psychologist and marketing specialist Ivan Denisov. - When in the shop, we hesitate to buy or not to buy, they often rely not on their desire or experience, but rather in the sense of relating to the goods. " Depending on which of them prevail: positive, negative, or neutral - we assess and the products on the shelves. In advertising, there is even a term "brand equity", which defines our dominant emotion. And the more pleasant feelings we experience when confronted with the goods, the sooner it will buy. How to practice formed an attachment to a particular brand, shows a study of consumer behavior on the example of companies Pepsi and Coca-Cola.
Before the beginning of the tasting beverage the participants underwent brain scans. When they did not know about what is offered in two sodas to them, they evaluated tastes almost the same. Neurological brain reaction at anonymous testing two brands also coincide. However, once the participants were offered the same drink, but packaged in jars manufacturer, the majority gave voice taste of Coca-Cola - the brand, advertising is the leader worldwide. In this case, people also noted the considerable effort the activity of brain areas responsible for memory and decision-making. Participants are not required to even try to drink - it was enough just to look at the bank with the logo, to secure a stronger activation of the brain's pleasure center and the increase in the so-called happiness hormone - dopamine.
Emotional Association against rational analysis
We tend to trust the product, if it is more expensive. For example, European and US consumers pay on average 85% more buying drugs known brand, although they can buy a more generic budget analogue (chemical formula and therapeutic effect are identical). This phenomenon illustrates the study of psychology at Caltech, in which participants were given a tasting quite the same wine "Cabernet Sauvignon", saying that the wine cost varies by specifying the price per bottle. Most prefer the wine that is labeled as more expensive. brain scans also showed a significant activation of the pleasure center in the case when the participants believed that drinking wine is expensive, and therefore, as they seem to be more high-quality and prestigious.
"Perhaps one of the most important achievements of neuroscience has been the discovery that it is emotions govern the process of cognition and decision-making, - says psychologist Douglas Van Prat, author of" The unconscious branding ". - Advertising operates on an unconscious level to our attention, and our emotional distress as a result, we will buy. "
One example - the study of psychologists Melanie Dempsey and Andrew Mitchell, in which participants presented products under the brands existent. In this case, all the goods were accompanied by visuals - pictures with both negative and positive information, which has no semantic relation with things.
We are easily willing to trust the information offered, ignoring their experience and common sense
"After viewing hundreds of images, participants could not say exactly what kind of product to meet them. However, they prefer products that are accompanied by pictures, which cause positive emotions, - says study author Melanie Demsi. - We call this effect "I like it, but I do not know why." In the following part of the experiment participants provided independent information sources which negatively evaluated before their selected product. And despite these objective data, people still choose those brands that have been associated with the "nice" picture. "Customer choice is not determined by them obtained by rational information and was probably due to the fact that go beyond the boundaries of their conscious control," - says Andrew Mitchell. In the trap of marketing does not just mere consumers, but even professionals. French scientists from the University of Bordeaux offered 54 experienced sommelier white wine, painted in red color. Appreciating its flavor impression, without exception, the participants used the terminology applied to red wines.
"Merely manipulating the color was enough to start the unconscious completely replaced rational, - commented this result Douglas Van Prat. - We are easily willing to trust offered us information and, if her product is well associated, ignore all his previous experience and common sense. "
There is no criticism of
As soon as we begin to experience the brand in relation to positive emotions, it is, like Caesar's wife, is above suspicion. We rely only on the arguments that support our decision to buy the goods, ignoring the negative facts.
"The rational part of our" I "is always looking for evidence, - said Douglas Van Prat. - However, the stronger our positive emotions, the more unconscious desire not to leave them. Therefore, we put an information filter, passing only a complementary information. "
This quality is often exploited in advertising, where we show the two products with the same purpose - washing powders or shower gels - one of which is in our eyes the best copes with its task. "Part of it looks like a relationship with a lover, when we do not see any improper sides and flaws in the object of our love, - says Prat. - In this case, the role of the beloved brand performs. "
to buy a pig in a beautiful bag
To paraphrase a famous saying, we often trust only competently to make advertisers "bag", ignoring the essence of the product. If one package promises cheese, non-fat 95%, it is more likely to attract our attention than the other, which indicates that the product contains 5% fat. We are talking about one and the same cheese, but the number 95 sounds convincing. Rather than simply provide consumer information, marketing embed it in a context that eliminates a rational approach and awakens our senses.
Purchase identifies us in our own eyes the beauty and success of your favorite actress or model
One of the most common advertising techniques - the use of popular media faces. In this case, we can easily carry over our feelings about the person on the product, which he advertises. And even if deep down and realize that your favorite actress or model, is not likely to enjoy only this lipstick or shampoo, buy things we identify in our own eyes with her beauty and success.
"A striking example - the story of the actor Peter Bergman, who played a doctor in the popular American TV series" All My Children "- says Douglas Van Prat. - When the actor took part in advertising cough syrup and openly declared the audience: "I am not a doctor, I only play its role", his words nevertheless accepted with confidence, and sale of drugs skyrocketed. What people saw Bergman in a white coat and decorations lab, was enough to make it in their eyes, an authority in the field of medicine. "
"So tell me about it!"
Our behavior is largely determined by the desire for stability, balance and prediction of events. And advertising has learned to fill the children's joy of recognition, endlessly duplicating information. Meeting with the product that we have seen repeatedly, it creates the illusion of inviolability and protection of our existence.
Stanford University psychologist Robert Zayonk conducted a study that shows how awareness of goods creates an attachment to them. Participants at a rapid pace showed objects of different shapes, so that they could not rationally assess how often they appear. Asked to name what they liked what they saw from the most, most confidently pointed to those items that are brought to their attention most.
Advertising coffee culture overcame our innate instincts, and now the drink is associated with pleasure
"Cosa-Cola's success, in fact, the same on the taste of the beverage, like many others, was built entirely on the effect of recognition and stylistic immutability, - says marketing Gepf Wettstein. - Classic logo, bottle outline, which became an icon of design, alliteration brand name, understandable and attractive for the media in any language, the ability to find the product anywhere in the world, an impressive advertising budget did this once modest soda water the recognizable and the world's first global brand. "
"Prevalence of and demand for goods sometimes in conflict with our natural instinct Security - says Douglas Van Prat. - One example - our attachment to the coffee. Biologically, we are programmed to reject any bitter taste. So we instinctively protect themselves from poisoning, because the bitter taste signal indicates the presence of toxins in the product possible. However, widespread advertising of coffee culture overcame our innate instincts, and now the drink is associated with pleasure, relaxation process and highlights the confidence of communication. "
The deceptive comfort of
Advertising is often built on the relaxation effect and create a pleasant aura, which is associated with the product. For this purpose there are excellent "pedal", which is pressed marketers. For example, a picture of something fun that we must laugh ideally. Neuroscientist Robert Provine says that laughter is linked with the ability to establish good communication.
"Laughter synchronizes the brain processes both the narrator and the listener, that brings them together emotionally, - he says. - Laughter also reduces stress due to the production of the hormone oxytocin. " The same goal - to make us feel comfortable and confident - and endless are "ordinary family" of commercials where housewives wash clothes, and her grandmother carefully poured the juice. It would seem that these stories did not shine fantasy or unexpected view of routine operations. Why do they work to increase sales?
The innate need to sync with people, like us, it is realized thanks to a reflective mirror neurons
"Our minds are not biologically programmed to develop in isolation - we need interaction with other people, - says Robert Provine. - This innate need to sync with people, like us, is realized thanks to a reflective mirror neurons in the brain. The activation of these neurons during the observation of other people makes us feel involved in other people's feelings and emotions. "
Thus, the brand of jam, which has breakfast familiar advertising character, it becomes us in their own ways.
How to protect yourself?
"The only way to get out of the circle of mindless consumption - a good understanding of the mechanism of manipulation", - said Douglas Van Prat. He offers to try to play the game. When the store arm itself extends to a product, think about what the association is related to him. You often see him? You confidentially, almost friendly way told this favorite actor from the TV screen? Remember that you imposed on the virtual image of the goods and mentally separate it from reality. This is - two different products.
The next step - to change the association. On a pack of multicolored toothpaste shows a gleaming white Hollywood smile? Create your own association. For example, a colorless paste or rinse obviously make teeth cleaner. This approach will allow us to make more informed and rational decisions.