Methods for manipulation by media
Note that in modern society, manipulation of the masses by means of the mass media are, in our opinion, the most effective of suggestive influence on the audience.
This is due at least to several factors, the main ones are the practical effects vseohvatyvaemost territory, as well as historical predisposition to believe the media, came to us from the Soviet past, and to persons born later - by phylogenetic.
So, we come to the methods of manipulation through the media, look at ways suggestive influence on the masses. And you should pay attention to the fact that all these ways of "work" and manipulating in real life (that is, when the media seemed to have, and nothing to do with) - in communication of individuals with each other, and so on.
1. The principle of priority.
The essence of this method is based entirely on the specifics of our psyche, which is arranged in such a way that the characteristic of taking for granted the information received in the processing of our minds first.
Even the fact that later we can get more accurate information often does not preclude either the fact of the subconscious distrust of it, nor of the fact that our unconscious mind will send in "supportive" of impulses received information first.
Apparently, in this case it triggers a primary effect of the perception of information as the truth, the more that once seemed to understand her and contradictory nature is impossible. And then already hard enough to change form an opinion.
A similar principle is used quite successfully in political technologies, when a competitor address (through the media) are sending a revealing material (dirt), thus: a) forming the voters a negative opinion of him; b) making excuses. And already in this case is the impact on the masses by spreading stereotypes in society that if one is justified - then blame (and, note, apparently still quite false stereotypes, but still leaving the individual of this negative imprint). 2. "Witnesses" events.
Quite common deception used to influence the audience in the right order manipulators when they are eyewitnesses alleged that with the requisite sincerity provide information shall be passed to them manipulators, passing it off as their own.
Name of these "eyewitnesses" are often hiding supposedly for purposes of secrecy, or also called false that along with falsified information, however often achieves the effect of the audience, ie. A. Acts on the unconscious of the individual, calling it the intensity of feelings and emotions, in resulting in impaired mental censorship, and capable of transferring information without defining it a false identity.
3. The image of the enemy.
Such a method of manipulation is often the most successful, as in this case by artificially creating the threat and consequently the passions, masses, as it were initially immersed in a state similar to the ASC (altered states of consciousness). As a result of that they are easier to manage, as the need for execution of an order dictated by the own safety of individuals; incidentally also forms a positive image of the authorities. What, again, almost promotes the acceptability of the authorities of any action, unconsciously interpreted by the masses as the "care" about them.
In Soviet times, falsely generated image of the enemy let a significant part of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) spent on the defense establishment, artificially creating a shortage in the country of certain goods for the population.
4. The shift in emphasis.
In this case, a method of supplying materials may seem very interesting. That is, there is a certain deliberate shift in emphasis in the feed material of the audience, when there is a shift in focus, and that is not very desirable for manipulators is presented in the background, as most clearly highlights the need for them. 5. The use of "opinion leaders."
In this case, any manipulation mass consciousness occur based on the widespread belief among manipulators that when making any actions purchasing or mimetic nature individuals are guided by m. N. opinion leaders. As opinion leaders may make different shapes that have become iconic and authoritative enough for a certain category of the population.
And more often than is the case so that the individual sectors of the mass media audience there and their opinion leaders. For example, for someone may become an authority of some famous athlete, for someone to pop singer or a rock musician for someone writer.
It is known that this form of manipulation used actively in the media and in everyday life. And during the election period, this form becomes the most desirable for the manipulator when the well-known actors, writers and musicians, hastily adopted in this or that party, recommended to vote only for her (well, m. E. For himself, that already means and for her, and for all those who belong to this party apart from these well-known figures of show business and the various institutions bohemian).
6. Refocusing attention.
In this case, it becomes possible to impart substantially any inflame emotional component material, but does not cause the expected storm desires. And it becomes possible based on the rules of the reorientation of attention when necessary to conceal information as it moves into the shadows as if by chance invaginates events serving distraction.
In this case, it becomes possible to present any material substantially completely without fear of unwanted (negative) component.
7. emotionally charged.
manipulation technology in this case is based on this property of the individual psyche, as an emotional susceptibility to infection. It is known that during the life of a man builds a certain protective barriers to receiving unsolicited information for him. But this becomes possible with respect to removal as defense mechanisms of certain components of consciousness, that is, for example, of the mind. Whereas in order to circumvent such a mental barrier, you need to manipulative influence was directed to the feelings; t. e. it has the fact that there are more in charge of the subconscious. In this case, the "charge" of the necessary information necessary emotions (the emotional component of the received information), it is possible to overcome the barrier of the mind, and cause an explosion in the individual passions, making him worry some time hear the information. Next comes into action effect sdetanirovaniya or emotional charging, which receives the greatest distribution in a crowd, where, as is known, the threshold of criticality initially below and separate individual intellectual component becomes markedly lower total nonsense obeying inherent individuals enclosed in mass.
A similar effect is manipulation rather actively applied during different reality show where participants seemed to initially speak in a raised voice, and sometimes show considerable excitement that makes watching the ups and downs of events demonstrated, sharing, following the main characters.
A similar effect on the emotional component of the mass-media audience occurs when speech on television a number of politicians, impulsively shouted their ways out of crisis situations, which in their opinion is always power. Similar methods are used, and use some of the announcers on television, which, thanks to this method of manipulating the effect on the individual feelings, and there is an emotional audience chargeability, and hence the possibility of such manipulators to force to pay attention to the feed material. 8. Conspicuous problems.
In this case, the mass mind control technique is not only very effective, but also fairly common in modern media. Its essence is as follows: depending on the supply of the same materials can achieve different, sometimes opposing views with the audience. That is, an event can be artificially "not notice", but something on the contrary, pay more attention to, and even on different TV channels.
At the same time, of course, the truth itself, as it were relegated to the background. And it depends on the desire (or desire) to highlight it.
It is known that every day in the country there is a lot of events. Naturally, it is impossible to cover all of their purely physical.
However, often the case that any of the events shown often enough, many times and on different channels; whereas something else that probably also deserves attention for conveying information about it to the audience - as it were, not consciously noticed.
It should be noted that the supply of information by such manipulative techniques often leads to artificial inflation of non-existent problems, which have not seen really dangerous trends. For example, among one of the most serious problems of modern Russia should be called the actual mortality by receiving alkogolesoderzhaschih liquids rather large population of villages. So, in other words, it becomes an inveterate drunkard drinks and a very large category of the male population. While slightly inferior to them, but it has an equally great number of adherents - addiction. Some part of the population is actually also already becoming hopelessly lost for the society due to the development of sectarianism. The first two problems pose a real threat to the demographic in the country, the media is focused on a conscious shift towards issues a much smaller, but the need to define manipulators of the powerful. 9. The inaccessibility of information.
This principle is also called the manipulative technologies of information blockade. It becomes possible to like when a certain piece of information undesirable for manipulators - deliberately not allowed on the air. It is known that television allows you to play the role of mass manipulator (especially significant audience of federal channels). Therefore, if any of the information you want to hide from the audience - it is sufficient not to let it spread through the ether federal channels (preferably not at all put on the TV).
In the modern media to the information blockade probably should include the real situation occurring in a number of areas included in the country and abroad among the former republics of the former Soviet Union, as well as numerous materials of the real situation in the country, but so much more.
10. The blow ahead of the curve.
Kind of manipulation, mainly on the advance release negative for the main categories of information people or compromising for the rival factions in politvyborov when this information is the maximum response to the gross, by the time the subsequent receipt of the information and the need to take unpopular decisions audience tired of protest and they have no I responded. And in political technologies happening sacrifice little compromising, then manipulators seek no effect audience response when applying for a promotion of a new compromising politician. The people, in this case, already tired to respond.
11. False passions.
The method of manipulating the mass media audience when used false passions at the expense of presenting supposedly sensational material, resulting in the individual's mind does not have time to react properly, create unnecessary hype and prepodnosimye manipulators information is in favor in the evaluation of its individuals. That is, in this case significantly reduced the criticality put forward by the censor of the psyche, so manipulators reach the expected result. In other words, to create a false time limit for which the information obtained should be evaluated, which often leads to the fact that it is almost without cuts (from the reality principle;.. The so-called reality testing) falls into the unconscious of the individual; after which affects consciousness, distorting the meaning of the received information himself, but also taking place to receive (and the corresponding value) information more truthful, and can actually be necessary individual.
Moreover, in most cases we are talking about the impact on the mass media audience when are utilized mechanisms to evaluate the information in the crowd, in which often the principle of criticality is difficult already and in itself, and here he is also disturbed as a result of false sensationalism and related him haste the need to take any action, that is, in other words, an adequate assessment of the information received.
12. The likelihood effect.
In this case the basis for a possible manipulation component comprises a known individual psyche, when it tends to believe information not inconsistent with its inner "I". E. In other words, if through the media (television, radio, press), we are confronted with information that internally disagree (it somehow contradicts the information already in our unconscious), we consciously reimplemented similar channel information .
In another case, if encounter the information that is not contrary to our understanding of this issue, we continue to receive information through the senses involved. And then in this case there is acceleration for manipulation of us, t. To. Manipulators deliberately be wedged into like and believable information of the false for us, which seemed to be automatically we take for real.
Likelihood effect can be achieved in a reasonable manner and appear to 70-80-90 per cent must be submitted credible information, or already known to the audience, or that she can check. And then 30-20-10% feed you false information as if already dissolved in the truth, and would be well received. Also in accordance with the principle of such manipulation, it is possible and the original filing obviously unfavorable for the manipulator of information (the alleged criticism of itself), thereby increasing the trust of the audience that the media source quite honest and truthful. But only later in the supplied information intersperse the information necessary for manipulators.
It should also be borne in mind that on some information the individual is able to come out of curiosity; as if unconsciously convincing themselves that will always be able to take a step back.
Further, if this information there is something that does not contradict any of his beliefs or internal installation of consciousness, he may review the information as a whole. It is enough to make a subsequent meeting with such a source, in this individual created a kind of unconscious positive emotion in the soul, as a result of which there has been, as it were faith to such media. Well, then, already obtained, in such an individual's threshold will be reduced susceptibility to any information obtained from this source; in t. h., and false information.
13. The effect of the "information assault".
In this case, you should talk about the manipulators used methods aimed at unreasonably vast amount of incoming information to the audience, resulting in a midst of the unnecessary and useless information is lost truth. Even the individuals subjected to this form of manipulation simply tired of the flow of information, and therefore has some of its analysis becomes significantly reduced, and therefore the manipulators have an opportunity to clear the information necessary to them, but to show the unwanted masses.
14. The reverse effect.
In this case, there is such a number of negative information against any figure that this information reaches the opposite effect, and instead of the expected condemnation of such a figure begins to cause pity. So manipulative techniques are again effective. 15. Everyday story, or evil with a human face.
The issue before us the type of mass manipulation becomes possible when information that might cause unwanted effects, pronounced very ordinary tone, as if nothing strange and even more terrible happens. As a result of this form of presenting information, some critical information during the penetration into the consciousness of the audience as it loses its relevance. Thus as it prostrates the criticality of the individual psyche perception of negative information, kind of getting used to it.
Prolonged broadcast nature of such psyche media audience significantly blunted that virtually eliminates the emotional component characteristic early listening (previewing and prochityvanii) various kinds of criminal information (information about murder, violent rape, attacks, etc.).
When illuminated with any rallies or demonstrations suppressed by the authorities with a large number of victims and survivors, the effect of such information is significantly reduced when submitting materials conventional speakers, even voice, as if they talk about a normal and very unremarkable story. In this case, the crime can actually be antithetical nature of the material.
16. The one-sidedness of coverage.
In this case manipulativeness used techniques aimed at lighting sidedness events when given to express only one side of the process, which results in a false (hidden, manipulative) effect in a possible interpretation of events supplied to the material, such interpretation actually deleted.
Thus, interested in lies manipulators again manages to hide the truth, presenting instead deception, in which the rogues and make believe the masses. 17. The principle of contrast.
This kind of manipulation becomes possible when the necessary information is supplied to the background of the other, initially negative, and negatively perceived by the majority of the audience.
That is against the black will always be something noticeably white. And against the backdrop of bribes and bureaucrats - in the right context can teach a person with obviously aimed at the creation of actions, even if he does not denounce the covetous, but, for example, only passes information about the positivity of the person.
This principle is quite common and political consultants, when analyzed in detail possible crisis ( "crisis" can always be found; it all depends on how you apply the material) in the competition camp, while on the background of all this ugliness - demonstrates the correct type of action used by manipulators candidate deputies.
18. Approval of an imaginary majority.
The use of this technique to manipulate the masses based on this specific component of the human psyche as the permissibility of taking any action (actions) after the initial approval of any other individuals. That is, we can say that in mind cleared a critical hurdle (and in relation to himself and in relation to the information received) after this information has caused the approval of other people.
The individual himself, in most cases (we are talking about the representatives of the mass) are often quite reluctant undertakes the eligibility of any guiding action on their part. E. To become the leader of the majority it is much more difficult than to become a slave. It is one thing to use some knurled schemes, and quite another - to implement their own leadership ambitions. First and foremost, precisely because of the danger of false get any criticism from others. Whereas in this case, after receiving the approval of certain (especially when supports have a certain number of other individuals) have seemed to grow wings; and you are able to perform a number of actions, which may be earlier and would not have dared. Something similar seems to occur in a crowd, when the consent of the other (in fact - your "associates" - well, or associates - accents here are placed depending on what will be committed by the crowd acts) reduces any criticality (censorship) psyche individual, and he is able to perform the feat literal case in relation to itself. (E. Perform an action for which the earliest, perhaps, would not dare). While that should probably talk about that any impact of such a principle from the manipulators is made possible on the basis of the same specificity, which causes individuals to form groups. What is a group or mass? The first is a mass extinction of fear. On the principle that when we are together, we are not terribly personal.
And just as well, being in a group, the individual unconsciously inclined to think that if something is approved by the majority, it means that it is more good than bad. Well, that perhaps he had not yet realized that it is good - it says only that the individual is not yet understood. And we can already mean to say that the probability that the "beginning to understand" the individual decides to have it adopted by a majority, will be very high. Just because historically the mind tends to give to the society to believe this. But because most of these methods becomes possible.
This method of manipulation is also used in television (as in some talk show audience begin to clap and wild way to express my delight that it is about to begin a commercial break), and to address any figures in front of the audience, when initially proplachennaya "support group" periodically starts to show all possible approval of the speaker, and in the case when the actors posing as ordinary people advertising some product on television. Therefore, it is desirable to such moments from the manipulators to identify and to them not to give in, bearing in mind that for the most part, the manipulation - unconsciously is a fraud with a view to comply with any requirement of manipulators.
19. The expressive stroke.
When implemented, this principle should be to effect the psychological shock when the desired effect manipulators seek intentional broadcasting the horrors of modern life of individuals, that is the first protest reaction (due to a sharp increase in the emotional component of the psyche), and a desire at all costs to punish the perpetrators of that. At the same time, what can we say that the emphasis at the presentation of the material can be consciously biased towards unnecessary manipulators competitors or against the information they seemingly undesirable. In this case, also achieved another effect when the background of the effect produced is fed any necessary information manipulators, which is almost easily penetrates into the unconscious, and from there, after some time, and consciousness. And here all the same as it becomes understandable, and because the psyche of the individual in the emotional state of stress (shock) can not adequately assess all the information it receives - emotions take up the mind, and because almost everything that is in our unconscious one way or another has effect on consciousness.
20. False analogy, or sabotage against logic.
This manipulation is very dangerous, t. To. The virtually eliminates the true cause in any question, replacing it with a false analogy. For example, there is a wrong comparison of various, like already mutually effects, which in this case are issued for one. That is in no way observed a logical component of a number of issues almost opposite character, but the manipulators is confidently presented as ostensibly a causal chain. A simple example of a series of "cook can run the state" - a well-known athlete elected deputy, and spin doctors strongly penetrate the idea (through the creation of associative chains) that if he was able to achieve significant results in sports, it can and achieve similar in the cause working masses.
21. Artificial proschityvanie situation.
In this situation, for solving any manipulators tasks thrown on the market a lot of information, thus monitored the public interest, and the information does not get up to date, subsequently eliminated, and the rest is presented with the help of many manipulative techniques to fully achieve manipulators programmed success. 22. Manipulative commenting.
Through the necessary manipulators accent highlights this or that event. At the same time any unwanted event for manipulators using similar techniques can often take the opposite color. As they say, everything depends solely on how you present one or the other material, with some comments.
23. The effect of presence.
Link to attendance at any event can direct manipulative technique to the maximum to achieve the desired result. By type - the witness is always right. And the mentality of the media audience, in this case, makes the open system throughput receipt of such information, in fact, without any of its analysis. Trusting persons who are in the thick of things.
24. Admission (zoom in) to power.
This type of manipulation is of sufficient quality in various shapes and can affect almost every single aspect of life, and is, apparently, historical perspectives of its existence (ie. E. Inherited psyche of modern man by phylogenetic).
Based principle, to, at times, almost radical change in the individual of his former opinion as a result of the assumption of such an individual to any of the authorities (even once scolded), famous artists songs (even in inappropriate for such an individual genre), etc. . The main thing in this case, compliance with the conditions of the real celebrity status and his desires in some way (even if temporarily) move towards their own kind individual. It plays the role of a purely psychological sign of the role of celebrity in society, which means that our individual already aware that the descended to his celebrity - the company adopted and taken up, and that the mere reference to it - as it were raises its (in tonnes. h. and increases the internal self-assessment of our individual), and seemed to be as a thank you people unconsciously ready to fulfill any request from celebrities. 25. Repetition.
Such a method of manipulating part is simple and unique. You need only the repetition of any information that such information is settled in the memory of the audience, and it was later used.
At the same manipulators should be possible to simplify the text and make it susceptible per nizkointellektualnuyu audience. Ironically, almost only in this case you can be sure that the necessary information will not only be conveyed to the audience, but they will be correctly interpreted. Multiple repetition of simple phrases just can achieve a similar effect. The information transmitted is first firmly fixed in the subconscious of the audience, and then will affect their consciousness, and thus to commit acts incorporated in prepodnosimye information.
26. True - half.
This method of manipulation is known a long time, and is presented to the public that only a portion of reliable information, while the other part, due to the possibility of the existence of the first part, manipulators withheld. As a result, in a society formed negative emotions to achieve manipulators own goals and objectives.
For example, in the 80's and early 90's. unscrupulous manipulators actively exaggerated information that allegedly fed numerous Soviet republics Moscow, so urgently needed their separation. At the same time there was a clear half-truth, because, as it were artificially overlooked numerous subsidies in the form of free natural resources that were sent to these countries. As a result, such republics as Ukraine, Moldova, etc. -.. Became independent states, but quickly slipped below the poverty line, an example of which - are populated major city in Russia - migrant workers. There is also still a certain amount of manipulation of the masses mentality through the media, that a transfer has already to some extent and unnecessarily, because we believe the issue is already adequately lit and clear. By ourselves, we might add, that every man should be more attentive to her, and admission to it any information included in the first place the mind, not the feelings, to analyze such information.
Source: Zelinsky SA "manipulation of the masses and psychoanalysis"