The main branches of psychology
The modern psychological science is a multidisciplinary field of knowledge and includes more than 40 relatively independent branches. Their appearance is due, firstly, the widespread introduction of psychology into all areas of scientific and practical activities, and secondly, the emergence of new psychological knowledge. Some branches of psychology are different from others, especially complex problems and challenges that solves a particular scientific field. However, all branches of psychology can be divided into basic (general or basic) and applied (special).
Fundamental industries psychological science are of general importance for understanding and explanation of the various psychic phenomena. This is the basis which not only brings together all branches of psychology, but also serves as the basis for their development. Fundamental industries tend to combine the term "general psychology".
General Psychology - a branch of psychological science, including the theoretical and experimental studies that identify the most common psychological patterns, theoretical principles and methods of psychology, its basic concepts and categories. The basic concepts of general psychology are:
• mental processes;
• mental properties;
• mental states.
The emergence of general psychology as an independent and fundamental branch of psychology associated with the name Rubinstein, prepared and published in 1942 summarizing the major work "Fundamentals of General Psychology", which includes the latest achievements of both domestic and world science. Applications are called branches of psychology, the achievement of which is used in practice. In most cases, using the applied branches of psychology solve specific problems within certain areas, such as:
? educational psychology is studying psychological problems, patterns of development of personality in the process of training and education;
? Psychology studying patterns of stages of mental development and formation of the person, from birth to old age, and therefore divided nadetskuyu psychology, psychology of adolescence izrelogo age, old age psychology (gerontopsychology);
? differential psychology is studying the differences between individuals, between groups of individuals, as well as the causes and consequences of these differences;
? Social Psychology studies of the behavior and activities of people involved in social groups, the psychological characteristics of the groups, the social and psychological compatibility of people;
? political psychology studies the psychological components of political life and activity of people, their moods, opinions, feelings, values, and so on. etc .;
? psychology of art is studying the properties and status of the person or group of persons that contribute to the creation and perception of art treasures, as well as the impact of these values on the life of both the individual and society as a whole;
? Clinical Psychology is studying the psychological characteristics of the activities of the doctor and the patient's behavior, symptoms and causes of various disorders in the psyche and behavior that occur during changes in mental diseases, develops psychological treatments and psychotherapy; ? legal psychology is studying the psychological characteristics of participants in criminal proceedings, as well as the psychological problems of behavior and the formation of the individual offender.
Apart from these, there are other, no less interesting for research and no less important for practical human activity branches of psychology, including: Labor psychology, engineering psychology, military psychology, psychology of advertising, environmental psychology, animal psychology sports psychology, space psychology and others.
Note that the application industry are not isolated from each other. Most often, in one branch of psychology used the knowledge or methods of its other branches. For example, space psychology is concerned with the psychological support of human activities in space, it is closely connected with engineering psychology, medical and others.
Source: Lukovtseva AK "Psychology and Pedagogy. The course of lectures "