Psychoanalytic notion of injury. The child and the injury

Psychoanalytic notion of injury. The child and the injury

The concept of trauma opens and conceptualizes psychoanalysis.

The injury may be:

- an external event

- or internal situation;

- process

- or state.

The injury may be a single

or multiple.

Freud's views on the concept of injury have changed and evolved. If we try to formulate a definition of injury, it would be possible to say the following:

Trauma - a sudden event, experienced with great emotional stress. Trauma causes scrapping of the psychic apparatus. The consequence of injury is the destruction of synchronization thinking, feelings and actions.

If there is an event in the life of a child experienced emotional fright, and the ego or mental apparatus of the child fails to respond, then we can talk about the injury. there is also to be understood that such an event when something happened too early, or affect, triggered by an event, too, are not entered in the associations flow and, therefore, do not go mental processing.

Trauma - is not just a blow, this event, which occurred with a person, an event to which you want to do something. It's like a bullet stuck in the body. To traumatic event is not encapsulated in the psyche requires motor discharge (acting out) or giving mental values ​​occurring (putting into stream of associations).

In psychiatry widespread mechanistic position - the tendency to directly link the event and neurosis, not taking into account a series of events preceding and subsequent mental processing. However, the psychoanalytic point of view there is no straight line connecting the event and neurosis. Always neurosis development involves many factors. trauma theory:

1. The hypothesis of the predominance of external reality Too much / too early (breakthrough protection shield)

  • impact.
  • The predominance of the external situation.

2. The hypothesis of a gradual distortion of the ego

Too little (Ego distortion / Ego deficit)

  • Such disorders are developmental disorders due to deficiency of exposure, as a result we get a change of mental work.
  • The gradual structural distortion of the ego.
  • Combines constitutional factors + factors very early childhood experiences. Ego deficits worse treatable.

The concept of trauma Freud undergo the following changes:

  • First, it is an external injury on the content of their sex.
  • Next - this is not a single event, but a chain of different events. Not only external, but also the action fantasy. That is, the first chain of situations in the psycho-emotional development of the child + development of fantasies, which by nature can be a pathogenic.
  • Then he talked about the relationship trauma and anxiety. How now the alarm - it is not just the conversion of libido and other structural model? There is the question of the adequacy of the Ego's ability. The ego can react to what extent?

Thus, there are three aspects of injury:

The economic aspect.

An event occurs that causes great tension in the psyche. Something is too early for the actual age of the child. Helplessness - the key word in understanding the trauma. If we talk about the childhood trauma in a situation where a child - victim of adult / older child, he can not do anything. He wants to defend himself, but is too weak, there are strong feelings, which he can not cope. The resulting agitation, without being elaborated, is cleaved from the event, the event is displaced, the amount of excitation remains "attached" to something else. The dynamic aspect of . There are too strong desire, which create excessive internal pressure, internal conflict, traumatic psyche. Coming into contact with adult sexuality (something seen, heard, has been exposed), the child's mind, getting the information, processes it as their own capabilities. Thus under the influence of the children's unconscious fantasies importance of what is happening is deformed by deforming the functioning of the ego.

Topographic / structural aspect. In this case, we mean the failure of ego development, ego unwillingness to process and cope with the excitement. It all depends on how the mind processes the event and what representation we get to the exit. Any injury there kontrkateksis. It has a value of mental ability to form representations.

All these aspects relate to each other.

The peculiarity of childhood trauma that the child is missing his speech to explain the incident itself or adults. Even the terms "adult words," he does not know their true value, he puts them meaning, based on his own limited experience. He is helpless in this situation.

The mechanism causes the retroactive influence (aftereffect)

The impact is not on the time line, and in the opposite direction.

If we meet with a reaction, incommensurate with the strength of external influence (too strong reaction), we know that behind it "traumatic basis".

The two-phase theory of injury

  1. Phase One

    From the outside, objectively, a traumatic event. However, due to lack of experience and the formation of "adults" concept, for the child subjectively this event is not a traumatic (stroking, stimulation, etc.). He did not even operates with these concepts.

  2. Phase Two

    Later, when growing up, people already have these "adults" concept, many events of the past years are subjected to mental rethinking of getting a new color, a new meaning. It was then that the events did not formerly traumatic become so. Occurs "posleperezhivanie", the new interpretation, the event takes on a sexual meaning, becomes traumatic.

The teenager is full of sexuality. The first kiss, the first touch may remind him of past experience, and what is happening today and pripomnennoe acquire traumatic coloring.

This can include not only the right of sexual events. A child can "invent" the talk he had heard as a child.

Any event at puberty, or closer to, physiologically resembling those early sensations perceived as traumatic (the first love relationship, kissing). It is also called the aftereffect.

If the traumatic event is really strong, it can cause the failure of the psyche. Each subsequent development may be retroactive to the previous-causes.

From an economic point of view, the injury - breakout protect mental shield.