Experts mysterious "Profile"
A young FBI agent was needed to meet these prisoners: it was he could tell about a killer of women. Prisoner was deadly even when talking through the prison bars, and definitely was not familiar with the killer - a prisoner Hannibal Lecter Dr. Lecter, the cannibal Lecter, a well-known fact that ate the liver of one of his victims. And I washed down with Chianti ... But he might know why the one who sought the FBI cuts in the skin of dead, why in the throat of each of them puts a moth pupa, and finally, why he kills.
"Why did he kill?" - the same question, the answer to which is to solve the crime. Respond to him can only investigator-profiler (profiler). About them and will be discussed - a unique profession people who put psychological science at the service of tracing. Profilers - those who recreates the psychological aspect killer of Evidence, signs and signs, sometimes seemingly unrelated to the case.
Who is able to kill
It is widely believed that the killers are most often the people whose mothers from early childhood rejecting them. "But not everyone who has suffered a trauma, become criminals - reflects psychologist Sergei Yenikolopov ***. - 11-13 years old - an age when formed notions of morality and ethics. And if in this period the child was subjected to physical and psychological abuse by adults, the impact of these actions are much stronger effect on the development of his personality than earlier rejection. " Also, do not underestimate some of the features that are inherent in each of us from birth. For example, such as the excitability of the nervous system. "Only a combination of adverse factors: features of brain activity, the degree of irritability, disturbed relationship with her mother at an early age and heavy adolescent experience - leads to the fact that a person becomes a criminal", - says Sergey Yenikolopov. VITA MALYGINA
The first "series"
Finals thriller Thomas Harris' The Silence of the Lambs "is known. With psychologically risky contacts with Dr. Lecter FBI agent Clarice Starling she unravels the mysteries of the pupae in the larynx, the killer of the person, and even self. For us, the most interesting thing is that the characters "Silence ..." there are real archetypes. Clarice Starling worked at the FBI in the department bihevioristiki (psychological analysis of behavior), which is headed by Jack Crawford. His prototype John Douglas (John Duglas) founded a real bihevioristiki department. In the late 70-ies of the last century, he was the first in the world began to introduce the practice of psychology in the investigation of murder cases - unexplained, serial, particularly violent or in any way connected with sexual motives. Working at the National Academy of the FBI, it will explore the possibilities of application of psychology in forensic science: he studied the statistics of serial murders in the United States, I talked with the prisoners ... He was trying to understand the law: who and why committing heinous crimes. FBI Guide drew attention to this work, and Douglas led the research program "Person-criminal profiling." He coined the term "profiler" (from the English profile - "psychological profile"). And the very profession.
The work of profilers First Serial Killer - David Carpenter - has been detained in the US in late 1979. Today the method of crime detection by creating a psychological portrait (profile) recognized by most forensic scientists of the world, and bihevioristiki FBI office - more than 300 cases per year coming to dozens of investigators profilers. From 60 to 80% of criminal cases referred for consultation in this department are disclosed. In 67% of cases created a psychological portrait coincides with the actual appearance of the offender *. At the FBI Academy in Quantico (United States) and its branch offices in Budapest (Hungary) and Bangkok (Thailand) are trained professionals from different countries - an 8-week training was provided and some MVD Russia. However, the main purpose of profilers studies, wherever they worked - to find out why people become serial killers, to understand what makes them tick and what should be the methods of investigation in cases of this kind.
The art of breeding "lambs"
Profilers work was a real Klondike for novelists, screenwriters and directors. In the film of the investigators "with a psychological slant" is increasingly reserved a major role. It is necessary to recognize the merit of "Silence of the Lambs": the film introduced the fashion for this type of hero. Profilers methods used Mulder and Scully in "The X-Files" characters Brad Pitt and Morgan Freeman in the thriller "Seven", Kevin Kline's character in "The January Man". Therapist Bruce Willis unravel the mysteries of male murders in the "Color of Night". Profiler was Sigourney Weaver in "Simulator"; psychologist and criminologist - the heroine of one of the most popular TV series America's "killer profile". And Lance Hendriksen of the "Millennium" before they unravel the mysteries of the mystical, also served as a profiler for the FBI. But particularly pleased that our Russian pioneer Alexander Boukhanovsky psychological profile, too, was in the center of the film. And American. At the heart of "Citizen X" - the story of the investigation of the case Chikatilo. Only two of the hero unfabled operate under the names - the maniac himself and Professor Alexander Boukhanovsky. He plays his famous Max von Sydow. This is the only derogation from the movie "truth of life" - Alexander Olimpievich much younger than the great Swede. VB
Portrait on a background of
"Most profilers do not go to the crime scene, - says Oleg Brodchenko, psychologist, police colonel, Head of research of problems of psychological maintenance of disclosing and investigation of crimes Institute of the Russian Interior Ministry. - We are studying photos of the scene, reports, expertise, work with information on other crimes. We are not only parts, but also the manner and procedure for criminal acts. We analyze, collate facts and make up his psychological profile. " Profilers describe character traits, personality traits, behavior criminal, make assumptions about his age, race, sex, family and work situation, sexual maturity, called his habits, inclinations, describe the style of behavior in everyday life, the relationship with the victim, predicting its next steps. "The conclusions that we do - this is only a hypothesis, which helps investigators narrow down the search - continues Oleg Brodchenko. - And, of course, only a general scheme of work. " Many profilers have their own individual approach. Miki Pistorius (Micki Pistorius), one of the few female profilers in the world, working in South Africa Police. She does not imagine an effective investigation without acting directly on the spot. Pistorius, Ph.D., graduated from the FBI Academy, but first profession she was a journalist. Perhaps, in its individual method affects reporter's desire to be in the epicenter of events. It needs to "get into the skin" of the murderer. That is how she opened a "case of the Phoenix", who killed women in the sugar cane fields. "I arrived at the scene and decided to go through the field - says Miki. - It is simply swarming with snakes, insects ... I was not myself, but I went ahead because I wanted to feel the same, I felt a killer, to smell that he breathed, to hear the same sounds. This is very important - to go all the way to the offender to understand what he was thinking at the time and that he planned to do. Without it, did not catch his thoughts, his condition. "
"It was important to go all his way to catch his thoughts, his condition"
... And then on the site of the murder, he smoked 15 cigarettes: feel safe, well-oriented on the ground. Shoes victims were neatly put away. Perhaps the killer - a perfectionist, it is important for him to leave the scene in perfect order. If so, then he is in real life: at home in his order, and he was watching their appearance. The killer made his way through the field, cutting cane. Character cut from the knife - typical of some local tribes - brought Mickey to trace the killers of the environment of the Zulu nation. She accurately described its profile, and the perpetrator was found. Pistorius Investigator method is largely based on intuition. Unlike most of her colleagues - they tend to rely on logic and analysis of data on similar cases.
- JN Douglas, Mark Olsheyker "Hunters minds: FBI against serial killers," Kron-Press, 1999.
- Brodchenko Oleg, Olga Logunov "Psycho-forensic software disclosure of serial sexual crimes," Research Institute of the Ministry of Interior, 2004.
- Viktor Obraztsov, Sappho Bogomolov "Criminal psychology" Unity-Dana, laws and regulations, 2002.
He saw a maniac in "profile"
In just a few years before his arrest in Rostov maniac psychiatrist Alexander Boukhanovsky * created his psychological profile. In its basic characteristics it looks like this: ". Age - over 40. Height 170 plus or minus 10 cm Low-key appearance. Closed. Passionate about horror movies. Astenik. Physical strength is no different. Chronic gastrointestinal diseases, tuberculosis in the past. Perhaps she married, but decided on this rather late; srednetehnicheskoe degree or higher. For a long time he worked as a teacher or tutor. The nature of work traveling, for example, supply organization. Not gay, not schizophrenic. Psycho-based personality changes, reached the degree of pain. Stop can only briefly, feeling the aggravation of danger. "
Sacramento (USA) has been committed brutal murder. After examining the crime scene, comparing this murder to other similar, examining the results of the medical examination, the investigator Robert Ressler (Robert Ressler) ** came to the following conclusions: "The culprit - a white male, approximately 25-27 years old, thin, poorly nourished. Bachelor friends had not. In his apartment, a complete mess. If he does not live alone, then surely with my parents, but this is unlikely. Perhaps in the past I have been treated by a psychiatrist. It is possible, using drugs. Unemployed. Perhaps it receives a disability pension. Not served in the army. Very soon I dropped out. Suffers from paranoid psychosis, it is quite accurate. " It looked like a psychological portrait of Richard Shaza, who entered the history of criminology called "Vampire of Sacramento". Shaza was arrested a few weeks later - profile proved to be accurate. And it was founded on a purely logical reasoning. Man The killer, causing injury of a sexual nature, always a man. White Such crimes, statistics show that the person committed the same race as the victim. Age - 25-27 years By the nature of the crime the murderer belongs to a class of people suffering from psychosis. This disease usually begins to develop in adolescence. It will take about 10 years that the disease has reached a critical point. thin Most of suffering psychosis are malnourished. Idle Patients of this type do not care about personal hygiene and appearance. Women do not agree to live with such a man. Do not serve in the army According to the state of health. early dropped out Also due to illness. Unemployed For the same reason it can not find a permanent job, and he has to live on a disability pension. Drive it, therefore, I am not able to. Therefore, we can conclude that the killer lives in the same block as the victim.
Guided by the logic and our compatriot from Rostov-on-Don, a psychiatrist Alexander Boukhanovsky *, creating one of the most famous psychological portraits - Profile Andrei Chikatilo. If the police listened to a psychologist in time, there would be no false arrests and executions of innocent in this matter ... And it was Alexander Boukhanovsky able to "talk" Chikatilo during the investigation.
Recognition of merit ...
Knowledge of the subtleties of the psychology of a profiler allows not only to help in the search for the killers, but also to achieve them - have been arrested - a confession. American investigator Robert Keppel (Robert Keppel) talks about the tactics of interrogation: "In Canada, disappeared 11-year-old girl. It was known that a man asked her to get into his car. Detained a suspect. We had to go to the trick to get his confession. I asked the police to contact me, when there will be found dead. I needed to know what he did with the girl. It turned out she was strangled, raped, and her face was badly beaten. Then the offender only the victim's head sprinkled the ground; body was left on the surface. I assumed that a killer was very angry, but he did not have the courage to turn their anger at the man who caused his anger, and he chose a defenseless child. During interrogation it was found out that on the day of the murder of his girlfriend kicked. It was the subtle woman of small stature. Perhaps her refusal, and pushed him to the murder? I caught on this assumption and tried to convince him that I understand: his anger was justified, moreover, the girl herself could be to blame for what happened to her. These words and provoked him - forced to endure a tantrum again, what I had hoped. And he said ... "
The creators of "Monster"
In the USSR and Russia, the method of profiling has never been denied. Back in the years of stagnation were psychologists for special services psychological profiles of foreign leaders coming to the country ... Today psychologists to help the investigation in the most complex cases, work at the Russian Research Institute of Ministry of Internal Affairs. A few years ago, they have developed an automated information retrieval system "Monster" to create a psychological portrait of the perpetrator in cases of serial murder. Search was based on a set of features describing the event and its main criminological characteristics. But the introduction of this system of money and was not found. Out of Russia and a common database where to store all the information about serial killers. General Directorate of Criminal Investigation Department of the Russian Interior Ministry several years ago prepared a proposal for the Russian Prosecutor General's Office about an individual order taking into account cases of serial killings and the creation of a single data bank at least on new cases. on the decision has been made ...
"They help not only to find criminals but also extract a confession"
Other countries have been more mobile and far-sighted. In 1983, the FBI management organized at the Academy of the FBI National Center for the Study of Violent Crimes. At the same time the single national computer database was created - ViCAP (Violent Crime Apprehension Programme) - base of arrests for violent serial crimes. In 1986 the UK was assembled computer database on crimes related to murders for sexual reasons, and cases of child abduction. It was found that people who commit such crimes, have common features, they have similar marital status, age and other features ... To be continued?
On www.trutv.com/library/crime site registered broadcaster Courtroom Television Network LLC (Court TV channel), created a unique profile "criminal mind" (Criminal Mind). It combines rare facts, accurate information, describes the experience of profilers in many countries of the world in "Forensic Psychology", "Profiling", "Trials and investigations." All information in English.