Gandhi, the apostle of non-violence
The shock of the incident has made in the young man's soul a revolution, he decided to devote his life to the struggle for justice. However, the fight wore a special character. Faced with the terrible discrimination, Gandhi did not become radical and terrorist - he chose the path of non-violent action, which he called "Satyagraha" - in Sanskrit, "perseverance in the truth."
Among his teachers Gandhi including Leo Tolstoy, which was in correspondence and whose name is called a farm in South Africa. First, however, the roots of his teachings still lie in the field of Indian culture: first of all, it is based on the key to the Hindu concept of "ahimsa" (non-harming) and traditional moral suasion. However, despite its local Indian origin, Gandhi's doctrine proved to be extremely versatile. "Wherever there are quarrels, where would you not confronted an opponent, conquer him with love. Spontaneously, I developed it in their lives. This does not mean that all of my problems are solved. But I discovered that this law of love operates as never was a law of destruction, "- Gandhi wrote. The law of love turned out to be equally vital for the East and the West. India under the spiritual leadership of his Mahatma gained independence; America inspired a follower of Gandhi, Martin Luther King, he refused to racial discrimination. Now it is different times, and the struggle for justice in society as a whole, and in relations between individuals, unfortunately, is often inseparable from the power of pressure. But this does not mean that the law of love ceased to operate: no other way to break the vicious circle of violence mankind has not invented.
- 2 October 1869: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in the principality of Porbandar (India).
- 1891-1893: after receiving legal education in England is engaged in the practice of law in Bombay.
- 1893-1914: Counsel is an Indian trading company in South Africa, which is leading the fight against racial discrimination, organizing peaceful demonstrations and sending petitions to the government.
- January 1915: returns to his homeland, where moving closer to the Indian National Congress and soon became its spiritual leader.
- 1919-1922: the campaign of nonviolent noncooperation with the British authorities.
- 1922-1924, 1930-1931, 1942-1944: Gandhi is in prison where repeatedly went on hunger strike, forcing the British to make concessions.
- 1946-1947: The last phase of the struggle for India's independence. Gandhi condemned the violent clashes between Indians and Muslims due to divide the country into two states - India and Pakistan.
- January 30, 1948: Gandhi assassinated a member of the Indian nationalist organization in Delhi.
Five Keys to understanding the
Love and non-violence is really possible to achieve goals unreachable by any other means. However, non-violence can be effective only when those against whom it is directed, are not deprived of the moral sense. Although Winston Churchill and ridiculed Gandhi, calling him a "half-naked fakir", Britain's ruling elite could easily give orders to the murder of unarmed people who participated in the campaign of disobedience. At the same time, non-violence is useless against those to whose morality is meaningless to appeal, and this must be remembered.
The idealism in practice
Idealism and belief in the nobility of the original human nature does not exclude a certain practicality. In the case where an absolute victory is not possible, a reasonable compromise is preferable to an uncompromising struggle. However, Gandhi always emphasized: the more people will learn non-violence (and it is quite possible to learn, because the desire for goodness inherent in every human being), the greater the likelihood that anger and hostility go away from the world and it will get better.
Gandhi insisted that satyagraha has nothing to do with passivity, and did not like his teaching was called "passive resistance." Apathy and indifference he considered the most dangerous enemies of man and once in the hearts noticed that indifference worse violence. And indeed, apathetic man indifferent to all, which means that to convince him to pay for good is much more complicated than the one who committed the violence, obeying his impulses and passions.
Learning from women
Non-violence, of course, it requires courage, but courage particular sense - completely devoid of aggression. Gandhi pointed out that this kind of courage inherent in most women, is primarily aimed at preserving existing values than men, aimed at winning new. Therefore, he urged his supporters not to be afraid of accusations of feminine weakness and learn persistence and patience in the weak half of humanity.
The doctrine of non-violence should be used with caution, because it concealed its pitfalls. The most serious is that it is very difficult to determine when the voluntary suffering ceases to be an appeal to the moral sense and the opponent turns into a deliberate blackmail, that is, in the form of psychological abuse. Gandhi understood this danger and warned about it, but insisted that the deal with it person may only own, based on their own feelings.
- Catherine Clement. "Gandhi". AST: Astrel, 2005.
- Mahatma Gandhi. "Anthology of Humane Pedagogy". House Shalva Amonashvili, 1998.
- Alexander Gorev. "Mahatma Gandhi". International relations, 1989.