How to preserve your memories
Many of us do not cope with the abundance of information, and this is due primarily to the fact that modern life is not conducive to the natural (involuntary) concentration. In order to somehow simplify your storage, we use various aids: electronic organizers, mobile phones, diaries, Post-it stickers - we record everything! However, from the moment when the technology is beginning to replace the memory, we are no longer "turn" it deliberately deprive daily training. So we are, on the one hand, make it easier for your life, but on the other - impoverish their potential. And yet, the situation can be corrected, because our brain - a flexible, plastic body. However, in order to learn to productive cooperation with your memory, you need to know some of its features.
What is the memory
Memory - this psychic function, which is responsible for the accumulation and structuring of our experience. This ability to capture, store and play back traces of their past experience - the basis of knowledge. Individual experience, which accumulates in the memory allows us to navigate the world in dealing with people and how to behave in society. Thanks to her, we do not have to learn again the day that has been in our lives - we can predict various situations and even to apply to the future. "We - that is our memory - says psychologist Natalya Korsakov. - It makes us ourselves, provides a sense of continuity of life from birth to death. People are so heavily in a state where, for whatever reason, something falls out of memory, because it breaks the continuity, integrity of the perception of the world and himself. "
Several types of our memory
Neurophysiology identifies several different types of memory, each of which is important in our everyday lives.
- lexical: it contains the names or words, but not their value.
- The Semantic: conveys the meaning of words. Sometimes the word "spinning in his head," but we can not remember it. This is the result of failure of access to information: our semantic memory can not find what she needed in our lexical memory.
- Emotional: keeps our emotions, sensory experiences.
- Somatic: keeps our bodily sensations and allows us a lifetime to remember, that fire burns, ice cold, etc.
- The procedural: it gives us the opportunity to remember how to type on a typewriter or ride a bike.
Do not forget the other types of memory: motor, figurative, musical, visual, auditory, memory for faces, text, etc...
First of all, it is important to know that we have there is no single center, which records, sorts, stores and provides all the information that we receive from the outside world. Nerve cells in the brain, neurons, starting with the birth of our forming a huge number of connections, fixing a variety of information. In memory there is no clear localization in the brain - areas responsible for it, which are also associated with other mental functions: perception, speech, emotion, and thought. "It is difficult to determine where displayed, is physically stored memories, perhaps because of the variety of types of memory that are connected to the process of remembering even in the most ordinary situations," - says American psychologist Philip Zimbardo *.
The process of memory can be divided into three phases
Touch memory also called "ultra". All perceive the information transmitted to the brain through the five senses, and it should be maintained for a few seconds. (So, when he heard the sound, we continue to hear it for about four seconds.) During this time, is solved the question of how this information is important to us: if so, then it hits the short-term (or long-term) storage. If not, it is deleted (forgettable).
Short-term memory,, or short-term, operational. This is a "deliberate" in the moment, information on the past experiences, which "pops" from sensory or long-term memory. At the moment (no longer than 30 seconds), we begin to see, hear ( "standing in front of the eyes," "ringing in the ears") that are not directly descended. If the information is worthy, it is processed and transferred to the long-term storage. - if not erased, and in its place there and then takes another.
Long-term memory: it lasts for many hours, days or years and is linked to learning and personal lived experience. The capacity and the duration depends on how important it is for us memorized information.
Forgetting - a function of the mind, which is as important as remembering that we would not be able to assimilate new experiences and knowledge, if not forgotten old. New information moves from the field of our attention and sends it to the storage system that preceded it. "However, we must bear in mind that the storage process - it is an active process - says Philip Zimbardo. - New information by interacting with the entire volume of memory, change the setting and motivation and thereby reconstruct all the subsequent behavior of the person. " "The next memory storage system creates an associative connection with other traces of contiguity, of similarity, in sound - explains Natalia Korsakov. - Often we find it hard sometimes to remember something, not because we have forgotten, and because we can not learn from "storage": memory footprint under the influence of these factors has been transformed, and we can not learn. " That's why you can not remember, to learn something (such as a foreign language) in the dream, the words will be in the "vault", but refer to them consciously, purposefully, we can not. To memorize need a certain level of conscious activity. "Because forgetting is as natural as memorization, do not fight with him, - says Natalya Korsakov. - In general, the memory there is nothing superfluous, so it is pointless to train without a goal - it is a waste of energy. Many things we do not remember or forget, simply because we do not really need. Therefore it is very important to understand that we can not remember, but we do not want. "
Try to train your memory so that it is useful and fun. So, you can learn to memorize a phone number. For example: 266 97 742. Every time when you have to dial a number, you do not know by heart:
Visualization - the universal principle of the acquisition of new knowledge: effective "tell" a poem facial expressions and gestures, than simply repeat it. Repetition does not affect involuntary memorization.
Each of us has their own individual differences, which are expressed at a different pace, accuracy and strength of memorization. They are connected with the peculiarities of the nervous processes, their degree of balance and mobility. However, if we need to learn something, learn new skills, everyone needs to organize this process so that the memory footprint was more stable. For example, to better remember foreign words, they need to not only read but also to write, listen, speak aloud, to correlate with the visual image. The greater the number of markers is equipped with a memory footprint, the greater the likelihood that we will be able to restore to intensify. Or to remember the name of the person with whom we have just met is not enough just to look at his face. It is necessary to concentrate on the pronunciation of the name, asking to repeat it one more time. At least three times mentally need to repeat the name, and correlate with the appearance of a new acquaintance. This will be the twenty seconds that are needed to our brain to activate the neural connections and the information passed from operative to non-volatile memory.
Education during the holidays
You should not blame themselves for that at work we are trying to carve out a minute or two and relax - such respite only help us. That is the conclusion drawn by researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA). Watching the action of the rats (and these animals on a variety of behaviors, learning disability and adaptation are very close to humans), they noted that after experiencing the unfamiliar maze of these animals take a similar time-out - at which point they "analyze" their way through just passed route. Special sensors "watching" for the individual cells. It was found that the neurons most active during movement through the labyrinth, located in short-term memory formation. While these cells again and again "lost" memories of your past (and 10 times faster than during the actual path), other brain cells had an opportunity to absorb the information and place it in long-term memory. The experimental results show that we learn not only when we are doing something. Respite immediately after the completion of the next job is very important - it helps to consolidate the acquired knowledge.
* R. Hering, Zimbardo. "Psychology and Life". Peter 2004. ** R. Atkinson. "Human memory and the learning process." Progress, 1980.
- Steven Rose. "The memory device. From Molecules to consciousness. " Mir, 1998.
- "Psychology of Memory". Edited by J. Gippenreiter And Romanova. Cheraw, 1998.
- Roland Geysselhart, Christiane Burkart. "Memory. Memory training and technology focus. " Omega-L, 2006