Fyodor Dostoyevsky, a realist in the highest sense
is surprising that Dostoevsky, being perhaps the most nationally among our classics, at the same time better than other Russian writers known in the world. Why is that? "I'm just a realist in the highest sense, ie depict all the depths of the human soul" - he wrote about himself. And that excites every man able to look into such depths? Why did I come into this world and how it works on the laws; What is the meaning of human existence; what will happen to me after death? That's about it and wrote Dostoevsky. It was an experience that is not just about anyone of us - the experience of the proximity of imminent death. Participants revolutionary group headed by Mikhail Petrashevsky, among them Dostoevsky, sentenced to death. Convicts were brought to the parade ground, the top three tied to the posts and pulled them on the heads of the hoods, voiced command "on sight!" - and only after that the final verdict was read: different periods of hard labor. The execution was just a hoax. In the evening of the same day, before being sent to penal servitude, Dostoevsky wrote to his brother: "Be a man among men, not unyt and not fall - that's life, what is the problem of its (...) On voit le soleil! (Seen the sun - fr.). "
Mainly in his novels is the dialogue - dialogue of man with his second "I" characters in dialogue with one another, claimed the philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin. A central question of any dialogue - the question of the structure of the world, where even a "positively beautiful" people, like Prince Myshkin, can not save all: saving one, it inevitably casts adrift of another ... One of Dostoevsky's discoveries is that we do not always act according to the laws of reason and truth, even knowing them, "And why it took all these sages, that person must surely prudent profitable Wish? Man needs - alone independent volition, whatever this independence may cost and what would not lead. " Hence, attempts to rationally organize the society are doomed? "It is clear and understandable to the evidence that evil lurks in humanity deeper than anticipated physician Socialists that in any society the device will not escape the evil that the human soul will remain the same as the abnormality and sin come from her own ..." fragility will be a society where a man could not do evil - he will always find a reason for this and, and opportunity. It is necessary that a person could, but did not want to do evil. And for this it is necessary to find and see the person - and in himself, and in the near. See in him a brother in humanity.
- November 11, 1821 Born in Moscow into a family head physician of the Mariinsky Hospital.
- 1846 publication of the first work - the novel "Poor People".
- in 1849 for taking part in the circle Petrashevsky exiled to hard labor in the Omsk jail.
- In 1854 the age of 33 goes free and served as a soldier and then as an officer in Semipalatinsk.
- 1859 He is allowed to return to Central Russia.
- 1864 Die first wife, Marya Dmitrievna, and brother Michael, are published "Notes from Underground".
- 1866 first novel by the great Pentateuch - "Crime and Punishment".
- 1867 Marriage Anna Snitkin, the departure of a few years abroad.
- 1880 "The Brothers Karamazov"; speech at the Pushkin celebration in Moscow.
- February 9 1881Ckonchalsya in his apartment in St. Petersburg.
Karen Stepanyan, PhD, vice president of the Russian Society of Dostoevsky, author of the monograph "The phenomenon of dialogue and in the novels of Fyodor Dostoevsky" (Krieg, 2010).
His view of the world
"Man is a mystery. It is necessary to solve (...); I'm doing this mystery, because I want to be a man. " This idea 17 years later Dostoevsky sound and speech on Pushkin, who took with him to the grave "... the great mystery. And here we are now without this mystery to solve. " Morality - more than honest behavior. One who burns heretics can not be considered moral, even if he acts in accordance with their beliefs, "it is only honesty (Russian language is rich), but not morality."
The answer to the question "What is the beauty will save the world?" Is in the drafts of the novel "The Possessed", "save the world the beauty of Christ." Why he stayed in the drafts? Because Dostoevsky did not impose anything on anyone, believing that everyone must come to the truth itself.
"To be one - is the need for the normal"
"I'll tell you about myself, that I - a child of the century, a child of disbelief and doubt so far, and even (I know it) before the coffin lid. What terrible torments cost and cost me this thirst to believe (...) And yet, God sends me sometimes minutes, which I am quite calm; in these moments I love and find that other love, and in such moments I put a symbol of faith, in which everything is clear and sacred to me. This symbol is very simple, here it is: to believe that there is nothing more beautiful, deeper, prettier, smarter, braver and more perfect than Christ, and not only there, but with a jealous love I tell myself that can not be. Moreover, if someone proved to me that Christ is outside the truth, and it would be really, the truth is Christ, then I would rather remain with Christ than with the truth. But it is better to stop talking. However, I do not know why some subjects of conversation completely driven out of use in society, and if they speak somehow, the other like jars? But by this. (...) For the past five years very soon, as I under escort or in a crowd of people, and not one hour was not alone. Be one - is the need for normal as eating and drinking, or in this violent communism shalt misanthrope. Human society will become a poison, and plague, and that from this something intolerable anguish I suffered most in these four years. It was my moments when I hated every counter, innocent and the guilty, and looked upon them as a thief who stole from me my life with impunity. The most intolerable misery - when it makes itself unjust, evil, nasty, conscious of all this, even reproach yourself - and you can not overcome himself. I have experienced it. " Letter ND Fonvizina. 1854. Complete Works in 30 t. (Science, 1972-1990).