"Do not bother to do to your child!"
Psychologies: Does every talented child?
Elena Makarova: Yes, I have not met untalented children, they are creative by nature. If we think that the child not interested in anything, so we just have not found something that would arouse his creativity. Perhaps he has no sense of internal security or sufficient freedom of mind to do. Another thing is that one should not confuse creativity and expression itself. Baby cries or makes a movement - as he expresses himself. But if we tell him: "Show how it will sound like your joy, your desire, your anger ..." - then the child will begin to look for a fact from which it derives creativity will start to give it a special meaning. Express themselves - that in itself is neither good nor bad, but if we want to help your child, you need to show him the goal, to make sense of his spontaneous self-expression.
How to understand how the child has talent?
E. M .: It is necessary to observe what he likes, what directed his attention? If the child likes to imitate, copy of motion and gait everyone sees, he certainly has the acting ability, then with it you can "arrange theater" play role-playing games, etc. If it is particularly attentive to the sounds, to the intonation of speech.. - then you have to develop it in this direction led to concerts, arrange family jazz Seishi, to show how sound kitchen "tools" - pots, spoons and cups ... dull sound, open sound ... You can make a whole orchestra! In general, with young children it is important to time to play games, awaken creativity.
Elena Makarova - art therapist, historian, writer, author of many books, including fiction, works on art therapy and the history of the concentration camp Theresienstadt. Since 1990 lives in Jerusalem, he conducts seminars in Russia, the US and Europe. E. M .: I call these games "everything can be all." Games-transformation, a metamorphosis of the game, in which the actions of the main law - the law of transformation. Take any object, say a cup - you can do it forever. It can be a vessel may be a cap, or a mountain person. If a cup of water to put in the freezer, then the surface of the frozen water can become a skating rink if to hide it in a dark box - it never will be, etc. You can take any object, accidentally caught in the field of view (diversified one, with different shapes, colors).. and play with them. Game - is the most important, the main way for the development of creative imagination.
What to do if a child light up the desire to be engaged in something, and then cools down?
E. M .: If your child has lost the desire to, say, play an instrument, you can look for another teacher or temporarily stop training, otherwise he may aversion to music. Do not put him in the position of the accused - for something that does not bring it to the end: perhaps he simply felt the need to get the experience to understand what he really likes. Maybe this kind of creativity in general, "it", or maybe just not yet time - because it is important to not only offer the child a good lesson, but also make it in time. If it dampens the need to make efforts, we should not indulge in the exhortation: "To play as the lady on TV, you have to try very hard." The argument is better to do something that gives pleasure to the child. Once I explained to one small composer - he did not really want to study theory - for which there are notes in the morning to play or sing that wrote yesterday. This explanation seemed reasonable, and he agreed to teach them.
It is believed that drawing is useful for all children. What exactly? E. M .: At the age of three to five years is the most important way of expression - the child simply can not be uninteresting to portray. Highly recommend to buy a roll of paper and hang it on the free space (suitable and old wallpaper, they can draw on the reverse side), putting a number of charcoal or pencils. It is a roll - it is not a pity to unwind and tear off pieces. You'll see everything that happens to your child, in what mood he is, what thinks - it is a kind of diary. By the way, the adult is a drawing would be useful in the same way as children. Large space helps a child - he did not squeezed the hand he draws freely as breathing, and does not care about how to create a picture that parents then have to hang on the wall and show your friends and acquaintances.
At what age did you engage?
Today, many studios open their doors to preschoolers, school children, teenagers. What is better to choose - painting, dance, theater? It depends not only on the inclinations, but also on the age, says child psychologist Catherine Dolto-Tolich (Catherine Dolto-Tolitch).
Classes to develop musical abilities offer the kids to discover the rhythm, sounds, songs, and try himself to play the drums, etc. Some experts believe that you can start at this age to play the piano or violin:.. Until the child began to study " serious subjects "at school, his mind is more flexible. To acquaint the child with the masterpieces of painting (drive in galleries, museums) can start at any age, as well as to engage in drawing at home. But the exhibition visit should not last more than an hour, otherwise there is a sense of satiety.
6 years of age
Art schools and studios offer a variety of activities:.. Painting, drawing, ceramics, modeling, sculpture, mosaic art, etc. The age of participants is determined by the technical complexity. Ear training lessons in music schools start at six years, and receiving training to play an instrument - a year later. Classes in acting and mime can be offered to children from six years - with the proviso that in the first place put the fun of the game, instead of the classical repertoire. Theater can be taught in a group of established rules allow to do together and learn to control themselves.
The best age to start playing sports or dancing.
Photo Art, video studio, computer graphics are very popular at this age. How clamped and too emotional teenagers help class theater and plastic arts: they will learn to express themselves and find contact with his own body.
Why do some children are kept very jammed?
E. M .: From birth, the baby does not get caught. In the words of artist and writer Nikolai Kuzmin, "in the beginning was the childhood, when each of us was a genius." Initially, the children learn the world, holding the line, causing the paint to create plastic forms, and does not know what is commonplace. They are clamped and then, when they start to press two "systems": notorious parents and kindergarten rules, which are taught to draw or sculpt "similar" and "how to". By the end of primary school the child is often "lost talent." Because the school often does not develop, and exploit his abilities. A child plays already spent their templates and hits a dead end. Another hindrance to creativity - parental ambition. If the parents are obsessed with the idea of success, demand from the son or daughter of the result - to be the best! - the child can completely atrophy desire to paint, make music, compose ...
Noticing the child's obvious abilities, whether it is necessary to focus on, say, a career actor?
E. M .: is not necessary, but it is necessary to do everything to develop them. For example, the rapid development of musical talent as a child can then help the child become a great mathematician or computer programmer - perhaps programmer codes, he will perceive more freely - like notes. It is very important to have good teachers and sensitive parents who did not crush a child's creativity.
The liberation of creativity
Some parents believe that the arts are not too important, if the child does not aim to be a musician or an artist. It is not so: creativity in any case gives a child an inner freedom and the ability to maintain himself as a person. It is well understood Austrian artist and teacher Friedl Dicker-Brandeis (Friedl Dicker-Brandeis), which was engaged in painting with the children in the Czech Terezin ghetto during the Second World War. Children create stunning level of freedom works. Thanks to the creativity of the children managed to escape - at least for an hour - from oppressive reality. children were often imagine things that have never seen or have seen but forgotten. In the classroom free themes alternated with still lifes or copying pictures. Iskusstvoterapiya which Friedl worked with children in the ghetto, was directed primarily against the fear, she healed spiritually children, give them a sense of freedom, put in order their thoughts and feelings. Five thousand children's drawings, Friedl summary of lectures for teachers and educators have been found in homes and bars-kah Terezín after the war; she herself was killed in Auschwitz in 1944. Friedl disciples who survived the horrors of Auschwitz and Terezin became artists, art, child psychologists, doctors ... they owe her career choice, many are still looking through her eyes.
How do you know a good teacher or a bad one?
E. M .: have a bad teacher has no interest in the child. He may have interest in the subject taught, but to pedagogy that does not apply. Much depends on the setting: if a teacher said to myself that this child no matter what is not capable, then the child will not able to - and then transformed into a class of torment. The task of a good teacher - give the child space for development. It requires sensitivity to see whether the student talent lies precisely in this area, and if not - refuse to achieve a result and send the child to that to which he does have ability.
As modern parents, in their employment, to create an atmosphere for the child at home, where will develop and imagination and creative thinking? E. M .: When we do not know how to help your child needs at least he did not get in the way. If he is doing something, building something or writes to himself, he is still in the process of creativity. The funny thing is that the children from us almost nothing. "Can I paint with here?" - asks the son or daughter, and we will reply to them: "No!" Many erect bastions of prohibitions: it does not take, to avoid touching ... adults all the time once, many simply forgot to contemplate, see the opportunity to create something new. But it's the property lives in children. They - and contemplate the figures at the same time.
Have a question?
- Website Elena Makarova www.makarovainit.com
- The Cultural Center at "Alexis", ph. (495) 615 4739, culturcentr.ru
- Moscow City Center for Children's Creativity "Culture and education", ph. (495) 919 3121, www.ku-obr.ru