Autistics possess supernormal?
Their emotional coldness, fear of change, intrusive traffic and missing views can confuse even close. But behind an invisible wall, which autistic shuts itself off from the world, hiding vulnerability, and sometimes unusual intelligence. What is the nature of autism and how autistic people feel in this world? Opinion neurophysiologists and expert comments.
Call budilnikaih stuns light table lamp, like a spotlight, has eyes, wear scratch the skin and face appear scary mosaic - about the perceived world, millions of people with autism. Swiss neuroscientists Camille and Henry Markram (Kamilla, Henry Markram) of the Brain Institute in Lausanne claim that we were able to understand the mechanism of this disease. Until now, most scientists believed that the symptoms of autism are caused by failures in the operation of certain parts of the brain. Markram is believed that the cause of the disease is different: no violation, and excessive activity of the brain, which is due to genetic characteristics or provoked negative effects on the embryo (eg, a drug which is the mother) in the first trimester of pregnancy. "For autism characterized by an abnormal growth of the brain during the first year of life - Camilla explains Markram, - two or three years it exceeds the average size of 10%. Part of this amount form special structures in the brain stem - neural beams having an excess of connective processes. Everyone works as a microprocessor: extremely fast processing information and sets of sets of new connections with other neural bundles. These hyperreactivity and hyperplastic and underlie autism. "
What is Autism
Autism state in which thoughts, feelings and desires are subject to their own perception of the world and are not consistent with reality. Symptoms become apparent in the second year of life, with two to five years autistic form of protection: at this time the children leave a maximum. All the symptoms of autism can be seen in three or five children from 10 thousand. In milder form it manifests itself in 40 of the 10 000 children, and three times more likely in boys than in girls. When the brain does not have time to combine into a whole lot of details, a person perceives the world as fragmented and overly saturated. "Autistic people perceive, feel, remember too bright and too much - Camilla says Markram. - Their brain is overloaded and can not cope with the flow of information. " Trying to hide from annoying the world, autistic withdraws into himself, in his usual rituals, maniacally repeating what one remembers. At the same time hyperplastic marrow in some cases stimulate superpowers (the phenomenon of a connoisseur) and sverhpamyat.
If the hypothesis Kamillyi Henry Markram * is true, it is important as soon as possible to celebrate the unusual infant behavior, to protect them from sensory overload (for example, using headphones, noise rejection), teach them to interact with others, to identify and develop the strengths associated with their features brain.
* More details on the results of the study see. New Scientist, № 2674, 2008.
The Club experts
Unique memory and intelligence - displays a form of autism. Thanks to Hollywood's most famous autistic znatok- - "Rain Man" by Dustin Hoffman *. The prototype of the character's 57-year-old Kim Peek knows by heart thousands of books, it is called "megauchenym" because he is a genius srazuv 15 areas of expertise. A 12-year-old Matt Savage, having perfect pitch, the first time remembers the score of the symphony, and determines the make of the car of engine noise. Almost a quarter of Microsoft programmers - people with symptoms of autism. Autistic with intact mental faculties (eg about one-third) significantly above average intelligence, but the inability to communicate prevents them to express themselves.
* The film Barry Levinson's "Rain Man" (1988) received four "Oscar".
"Communication with them can be restored,"
Psychologies: Do you agree that autism may be associated with excessive activity of the brain?
Marina Bardyshevskaya: This hypothesis is consistent with many observations. Sverhvospriimchivost autistic children examined and Soviet specialists Victor and Clara Lebedinsky. They, in particular, believed that autistic perception initially "negative": autistic negatively refers to any experience. Their brains sverhvospriimchiv, but the mental activity of the child is low. He, for example, can store a huge amount of information, but it does not develop it, it does not acquire personal experience.
Hypersensitive child will certainly not grow like everyone else?
Much depends on the emotional state of the mother after birth. His mother, prone to mood swings, experiencing conflicting feelings may unwittingly provoke the development of disease symptoms. And if the mother is calm and completely absorbed by the baby, it preserves and protects it like a cocoon.
How do you know that your baby is special?
You may notice that the baby suffers gipervozbudim: can not sleep, choking, do not breastfeed and fast. Or, on the contrary, the baby is too humble: the clock is centered in one sense, is not asking for a hand, can long remain one. Later, these children are unpleasant touch, they do not understand games like "ladushek", do not use and do not perceive the pointing gesture, so it is difficult to get their attention.
That the child was able to live among people who need to convince him that the living is better than inanimate objects. It is very easy: all autistics prefer permanent and afraid of other people just because that person express different emotions change. Therefore, it is easier to draw a man from the back, and my mother's portrait, they are sometimes attracted more than a mother herself. They like to do the same thing, for example, to repeat endlessly, "The Simpsons" - and then you can ask them to come up with a new series with the same characters. They like to communicate with the computer, trust it and use it to learn a lot of things that we understand intuitively. Of course, there need medication, diet, help different types of psychotherapy, such as holding-therapy when his mother, a long time holding the baby in his arms, is gradually restoring bodily and emotional connection with him. To reach an autistic child, you need to act very carefully, delicately. It is a long but necessary work. Marina Bardyshevskaya - Associate Professor of Neuro and abnormal psychology of the Faculty of Psychology of. MV Lomonosov Moscow State University, author of "Diagnosis of mental development of the child" (Acropolis, 2008)
Have a question?
- Center for Child Mental Health, ph. (495) 954 3653, 952 4920, www.neuro.net.ru/org/dpb6.html
- Children's Rehabilitation Center "Our solar world," that is. (495) 486 4219, www.ecosystem.ru
- Foundation to help children with special needs, "Fathers and Sons" (St. Petersburg), t. (812) 571 7406, www.otsyideti.org.ru