Alexander Filippov: "We have no ideals, but still have feelings"
There exists in the world today whether true friendship, or the ability to make friends is in the past? It looks like "normal" friendships, and what happens to them now? According to the philosopher.
, Alexander Filippov, head of the department of practical philosophy HSE chief editor of "Sociological Review".
What generally is a modern friendship?
From the point of view of philosophy, friendship does not exist today. I'm not going to shock you, but merely stating a fact - as an observer and no more.
Good start I am talking ...
A. F .:
Ready to explain. Aristotle said: "The nature of the effect at the close." What does it mean? That the purpose and nature of any object or phenomenon manifested most fully when the object or phenomenon is perfect, that is completed, and can not be improved. Want to find true friendship - look into her ideal. This is the point of view of philosophy. Suppose two bastard conspiring to kill someone. They are very unanimous in their endeavor in every way to help one another, and then another, and sheltering each other from the police. This is - friendship?
So you want to say that such an ideal is now simply do not have?
A. F .:
Exactly. And this applies not only friendship, but also almost all intimate relationships.
Is today not have normal friends, and as a normal family?
F .: A.
No normal ties do not exist. The notion of rules of relationship is always conditioned by the era and society. And if we find ourselves today in Athens, Aristotle, you probably would have been horrified. Chanting homosexual pedophilia, legitimate opportunity for men to engage in communication with the three types of women - wives, slaves and Hetero - and his wife, not daring to stick his nose outside ginekeev, the female half of the house. Now tell about the ancient Greeks Moscow a single mother with three daughters by three different fathers, the eldest of whom is pregnant at 15 years old and lives with his classmate from his parents ... So the concept of "rule" does not apply here. Besides, I did not say that today there is no loving parents, grateful children, faithful spouses and reliable friends. I say only that there is no ideal relations today. And friendship ideal is also a concern. I think that the destruction occurred in about 30 years. That is, before a friendship was all right?
F .: A.
I would not say that everything was in order, but there was definitely ideal. For example, the Soviet ideal had been involved in the romantic notions of friendship with some admixture of antiquity. Antique ideal of friendship - it is, like it or not, civil ideal. Ancient philosophy developed in the small city-states, where all the people were somehow familiar with each other: together policy defended by the enemy, brought together on the theatrical performances, participate in religious rituals. The ideal policy - place, all the people who live the good life. And the idea of friendship was subordinated to the same goal, the common good purpose. Of course, in Soviet times, the idea of the common good was also present. Although the difference between a small insurance policy and one sixth of the land is too high, so that this ideal could be viable. But in the Soviet sense of friendship it was very much, and from the romantic ideal.
Yes, just the romance of friendly relations of the time we know from books Vasily Aksenov, Marlena Hutsieva films, songs of Vladimir Vysotsky.
F .: A.
But this is a secondary romance, whose origins are well illustrates the ballad Schiller's "Bail". The plot in brief is as follows. The hero tries to kill the cruel tyrant, but captured and sentenced to death. He is ready to die, but first of all means wants to arrange the fate of her sister, to marry her. He asks the tyrant to let him go for three days, but this time as a bail custody will remain with each character. Tyrant agrees, each, of course, too - and fearlessly takes place in prison. A hero to marry off his sister embarks on the way back - and is faced with a mass of monstrous obstacles, but still have time to go back to the time when the other has led to execution. Then touched the tyrant begins to see and also decides to continue to be friends with such wonderful people. As you can see, this is a very different ideal. Civic sense in the background, the main thing - the power of the senses particular person.
"While we did not encounter new ideals, we are left with friends and love, relying only on their own strength"
Very nice, in my opinion, the ideal.
F .: A.
Great! Just very quickly outdated. Think of a caricature of the romantic Lensky. And stinging Pushkin's lines: "He believed that friends are ready for the honor of his Priya shackles, and that will not falter their hand broke the box of the accuser." The irony of this - deeply disappointed by the fact that the romantic friendship of the world is not that ideal is unattainable. Nevertheless, just a friendship - adjusted for the common good - and we planted. In the course of the critics and prosecutors was typical formulation: "misguided sense of camaraderie". This phrase entered into a terrible imbalance between human feelings and ideology demands.
Well, this artificial ideal collapsed, and what's next?
F .: A.
In fact, the destruction of the ideals of friendship was not only for us. For example, I had to live and work in Germany. There are very fond of the word Freund - each. This is good, warm words, it seems, people even want to say it more often. But when you turn "mein Freund", it should be clearly understood that this came to nothing obliges. Behind this word is worth nothing, no strong attachment or readiness to sacrifice something. Language reflects the processes taking place in life. And change the meaning of words speaks with the very concept of a problem. In Russian, the word "friend", I think, on the contrary, is now rarely found, it is replaced psevdosinonimy: buddy, friend and - most characteristic! - Friend. Well, who would think to consider hundreds of your friends to Facebook in real friends? These buddylist can do for each other? Does that put extra Like ... If the ideal of friendship is destroyed everywhere, so the fact there is a universal cause. What?
F .: A.
First of all - the mobility of modern life. We are too much, and easy to navigate - and in space, and in social relationships. And build strong relationships often do not have time. On the other hand, the number of connections increased to such an extent that it becomes impossible to complete self-giving. The ease of making contact turns easily their destruction and lightness relationships themselves. No, we can not in one of the hundreds of emerging bonds - or do not have time, do not want, or all together - to invest their "I". And simply put - to put her soul. Here arises another question: is it really valuable is the most carefully guarded us "I"? I suspect not. What this truly valuable, "I" is also no longer exists. It was not only one of the parties in friendship or love. It was both a cause and a result of deep, authentic relationship. The constancy of family, love, friendships as it topples back into the inner world, giving it stability, clearance and depth.
Your words are the epitaph ...
F .: A.
No, no, they should not be so perceived. We are talking about the destruction of ideals, but that does not mean that there are no more feelings themselves. I said that, and loving wife and best friends are still there. It does not become universal patterns, but the need for friendship and love has gone nowhere and will not go away. Probably, there will be new ideals with time. In the meantime, we have to make friends and love, relying only on their own strength.