As new ideas?
Gervits Natalia, 24, author of the idea of anti-café "Green Door" "I know what you need to try"
"After graduation, my life was out of inertia: I went to graduate school, she worked in the same place where a student got a job. My circle of friends is not expanded. Perhaps that is why I and there was this idea: it wanted to organize a space where people would gather for the sake of communication. She remembered the institute and the party we went to some audience after school, drinking tea with a cake, being finished homework ... And it was really fun! And what if you open the anti-café where visitors do not pay for food, but for the time spent there? My friends and five of us chipped in to create a "door." It was scary to invest their own funds. But I was confident and that you need to try.
Our anti-café - it is absolutely fair format: a man spends his time as he wants. Guests can relax in the library, watch a movie, or some kind of show, or listen to a lecture, play board games. They can do something to cook in the kitchen, and even take a shower. Absolute freedom! This has not been done to us. "
Recorded Yulia Warsaw
"Almost every one of us familiar with the state of painful reflection on the task. It seems that the decision to somewhere very near, it runs along the edge of consciousness, but escapes at the last moment. As we do not have that insight, which is visited by Archimedes in the moment when he exclaimed his famous "Eureka!" ( "Found it!"). According to legend, he discovered the fundamental law of hydrostatics, immersed in a bath. A creative search of Isaac Newton, as they say, the culmination of an apple, a scientist fallen on his head. But whether we will achieve the same result if ulyazhemsya in a bath or get the apple on the head? What's the matter - in a happy coincidence of circumstances or personality characteristics, trapped in these circumstances? Who are the favorites, which are in the hands of great ideas?
To help the case?
The authors of great ideas not too clarify the path to success. Rather add mystery. For example, Albert Einstein said: "The opening takes place in science is not a logical way, in logical form it is clothed only later, during the presentation. The discovery of even the smallest - always inspiration. The result comes from the outside and so unexpectedly, as if someone suggested it. "*
But science does not like mysticism, and trying to look at the creative process of the specific facts and clear patterns. An interesting creative process scheme suggested social psychologist Wallace Graham (Graham Wallas) together with the mathematician and psychologist Jacques Hadamard (Jacques Salomon Hadamard). They studied the stories of many scientists about their work and identified four stages of an idea. First, the decision to focus on the task, as precisely as possible to formulate it. The second stage: the goal is defined, and can be "let go" of your mind, switching to something else, and leaving to work actively unconscious. When a solution is found, there is insight - insight, discovery - the third, the shortest and bright stage. And finally, the fourth stage: I found the idea of being tested - is it really new? Rightly or wrongly? Is the value of?
Modern neuroscientists recognize this pattern, leaving no room Romanticism. But what about inspiration, which does not require effort from the creator?
"This is an outdated stereotype! - says Lionel Naccache (Lionel Naccache), neuroscientist at the Brain Institute in Paris. - Mind and dedicated efforts play a vital role in the creative process. But we are aware of only a small part of the information that actually handles our brains. " This is an important point. Its meaning is that we can not understand how hard our brains looking for the solution of a problem. Speed unconscious operations is much higher than that which is able to develop our sluggish logic with conscious processing of information. Not surprisingly, therefore, when there is a bright idea, it may seem that it came from outside, not born by our mind. So, if we want to find a solution to a difficult problem, we should as closely as possible to pose the problem - and then provide work to the unconscious, which is able to search for solutions very quickly, intensely and in different directions. The unconscious can adjust and even restate the problem, that is, "to create a completely new solution, not foreseen by the original wording," - says Lionel Naccache.
The history of science is replete with examples of how to accidental discoveries, when a scientist looking for one thing and finding another. For example, as was discovered penicillin: biologist Alexander Fleming came back from a vacation and found in the blood vessels, where it left a staph culture, settled mold. Instead of throwing away evidence of a failed experiment, Fleming began to study them carefully. And found that the mold around a pure space in which the bacteria do not develop. Thus was born the world's first antibiotic. Why it is fortunate Fleming? The answer is - in the words of another prominent biologist Louis Pasteur, who himself just so "accidentally" came to the idea of vaccination: "The case helps only the prepared mind."
We classify items into categories, and this transaction allows us to make generalizations. "But every time having to search, - says the coach Luc de Brabander (Luc de Brabandère), - we close our eyes to the uniqueness of the objects which it integrates. Here is an example, where it leads into business. At the Carrefour retail chain had all the know-how and the necessary vendors to create the biggest online store in the world. And did it Amazon, a newcomer to the market. This is the trap of categorical thinking, one of those which so often gets stuck our creativity. Sometimes the company giants can be compared to an ocean liner, so huge, that the people working on them, do not see any ocean around, let alone the other ships. "* * "Les mots et les choses de l'entreprise" (Mols, 2012).
Sagalaev Eduard, 66 years, author of TV programs the idea of "The View", "12th Floor", "7 days", the TV channel "TV-6" and "Psychology 21" "go beyond the usual"
"The birth of ideas - this is the real birth: she hatched a long time, and is born painfully. Moreover, the entire preparatory process generally takes place unconsciously. The paradox, but is sometimes a fruitful state of depression when I feel a deep dissatisfaction with life, fear not to take place, to lose someone's esteem. This was the case when, after Yeltsin came to power, I was appointed general director of "Ostankino". Very quickly it became clear that to make the free TV of which I had dreamed for many years, I will not allow. It was a terrible disappointment and a sense of powerlessness. And suddenly it came to me saving thought: Who said I can not get away from this system? You need to create your own channel! And once everything fell into place. Of course, there was a lot of fear, because the private channels we did not exist. And yet I went ahead, I made the "TV-6", because he wanted to be faithful to their vocation. In me there is a certain strength, which leads me to the extreme situations. It was me, only the other: a fearless, confident, free.
On the other hand, it is very fruitful for me, the game state. It also helps to go beyond the "can not" or "can not" do what no one did. And then the best remedy - brainstorming when it involves extraordinary minded people and we are together we bring the idea to the mind.
The most important thing for me - a sense of ideas. Several years ago, my son decided to set up a clinic to treat Rehab Family relationships. He suffered this idea, he passed through alcohol dependence. His idea became my own, I was encouraged to help him. And I hope that this is another project that I can account for my life. " Recorded Galina Nicholas
Recipe cocktail "creativity"
"Big ideas are almost never the result of a sudden inspiration - says American researcher Steven Johnson (Steven Johnson). - They have to mature. For a long time they live in the background, in the unmanifested state before you will gain clarity. "
Does this mean that hard work, concentration on the task at hand necessarily lead us to the right decision? Alas, this is a necessary but not sufficient condition.
Then help us a high level of intelligence? And it is not so. IQ level above a certain value ceases to be correlated with life's achievements, as demonstrated by psychologist Lewis Terman study (Lewis Terman).
Maybe it's the special creative abilities? Again, no. You can show the prohibitively high results in the special tests on creativity, but did not create a lifetime of any bright ideas. many more ingredients required for a cocktail called "creativity".
"Creative people have an amazing ability to adapt to almost any situation and use all proved handy resources to achieve the goals," - says psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi), devoted to the study of the topic 30 years. The key difference makers he considers a complex organization of personality. "They coexist characteristics of thinking and behavior that most people are divided among themselves. They have a lot of internal contradictions, they seem to accommodate a variety of personalities. "**
Creative individuals can be in some situations, introverts and extroverts in the other, they get along lines slackers and workaholics, dreamers and realists, rebels and conservatives. But one of the most important qualities of them all, Csikszentmihalyi believes the ability to enjoy the works of art for its own sake. It allocates and factors that harm creation. This exhaustion from overwork and fatigue from problems; weakness of character, laziness and lack of discipline; tendency to dissipate, and the inability to concentrate on the essentials, and, finally, the vagueness of the objectives and a lack of motivation to achieve them.
Creativity as a synonym for happiness
Yet the most intriguing to us is the moment of inspiration. What ways lead to it? "For the birth of the idea we need an open, fresh look - says Svetlana existential psychotherapist Krivtsov. - we move into the background all presets, all they knew before, and let the phenomenon by which the look, open to us in nature. It is a process of emotional and intuitive. The illumination is based on emotional involvement, excitement and interest. Creative personality distinguishes highly susceptible, it is impressive what the ordinary people can not pay attention. "
They talk about the non-rational insight and creators themselves. Many poets assure us that in moments of inspiration as though written by someone else's dictation. But writers admit that their figures show willfulness, coming out from under the author's control. Let us recall the phrase of Pushkin: "Imagine that my uchudila Tatiana - went and got married!".
"There is nothing mystical - sure Svetlana Krivtsov. - This simply means that the author has reached a point when I opened it serves as an objective reality. It is impossible to change anything, is only as good as possible, and better reflect the fact that open. And yet at this moment a man as ever, feels himself and experiencing a sense of the incredible creative freedom. "
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi distinguishes between two types of creativity. Creativity in small letters - work "for himself," I have only the life of the man himself and his entourage. And creativity with a capital letter, which changes the life of the entire society. But if we make the discovery for the whole world, or invent something just for yourself the quality of life in any case changes. "If the idea is implemented, it inspires us. We feel the fullness of life, harmony with oneself and with the world, - says Svetlana Krivtsov. - And this is the main criterion for a happy life. " * A. Einstein, "Peace and Physics" (Taydeks Co., 2003).
** M. Csikszentmihalyi "Creativity: The Work and Lives of 91 Eminent People" (HarperCollins, 1996).
The ideas are born ... if they do not criticize the
Brainstorming, or brainstorm - the method of brainstorming, which allows a company or enterprise to generate new ideas for development. He came up with his American journalist and advertiser Alex Osborn. At the initial stage of the problem lies in the fact that the participants expressed their ideas as much as possible about the problems put before them. Criticize them is prohibited. Instead of "Yes, but ..." I supposed to say, "Yes, and ..." This is a form of discussion without conflict. All ideas deserve to listen to them. Evaluation and selection will take place only in the second stage, on the first goal is not to come up with a ready-made solution, but rather to be able to look at the problem from a new angle. There are many methods and techniques of brainstorming. Here is an example of a leading mathematician and business consultant Luc de Brabender (Luc de Brabandère): "One technique is to ask employees to describe their work without resorting to the usual vocabulary. Once I spent brainstorming in the enterprise, which produce sparkling wines. I asked the participants to tell me what their job without using the words "wine", "bottle", "crop year", "bubbles", "Export", "sales". After some time, someone said: "Our job - to do so, failed to holidays." It is based on this idea and were then developed derivative products, and developed a new attractive design. All this, from a marketing point of view, it was for us a big step forward. "
book on the subject
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi "Flow: the psychology of optimal experience" active state of joy, of complete absorption of the business, when the pleasure is drained with the efforts and experience its meaning ... may each of us, according to the discoverer of the state of "flow" American psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi *.